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                               Civilization III
                  "How to win friends and Conquer people..."

                               January 2, 2002
                                 Version 0.4

                        Written by:  boomer2411
                             Email:  [email protected]

                                 Email Policy: 
          If you are going to email me about this game, please put
          Civilization III as your email subject as well as the version
          number of the FAQ that you are looking at.  So your subject 
          line should read "Civ III, 0.4"  Also please realize that I am
          not hiding cheats or any other information, i.e. everything I 
          know about Civ III is in this guide.

          If you see any mistakes, or have anything that you want to add
          please email me!  I will, of course, give you full credit for
          your addition, and be eternally grateful to you.  Email addresses
          are not posted in the FAQ, unless you specifically state that
          you want it to be.

          Also, if you have a BUG of some sort, try downloading and
          installing the Patch first.  Sure, it's a large download, but it
          fixes a large variety of problems.

          Finally if you are on AOL and want a response from me, make sure
          that your email is accepting from Hotmail (webmail).  I have 
          received way too many emails returned from AOL with a message 
          that the person wasn't accepting from Hotmail.

You will find the most up to date version of this FAQ at:
Be sure to pick up the 1.16f patch for Civ III: (see the Patch Info section
below for more details)

This FAQ looks best in a fixed-width font, such as Courier New.

This Document is Copyright 2002 by boomer2411
Civilization III is Copyright 2001 by Infogrames/Firaxis

I am not affiliated with Sid Meier, Firaxis, Infogrames or anyone who had
anything to do with the creation of this game.  This FAQ may be posted on any
site so long as NOTHING IS CHANGED and you EMAIL ME telling me that you are
posting it.  You may not charge for, or in any way profit from this FAQ.

What's New in 0.4:
    Everything is new. Many sections are still incomplete at this stage.

  For a complete Version History, check out the Final Words Section at the end
  of the FAQ.

                              Table of Contents:

    i.   Civilization III, What's Different?
   ii.   Patch Info (v1.16f)
  iii.   Using the Map Editor

    1.   Game Basics (or, So You've Never Played a Civ Before?)
    2.   The Civs
    3.   Building an Empire
    4.   Culture
    5.   Diplomacy
    6.   Dealing With Corruption
    7.   Science
    8.   Wonders of the World
    9.   War, What is it Good For?
         9.1   The Combat Engine Demystified!
   10.   Winning the Game
   11.   Extra City Names
   12.   A Brief History of Each Civ (Or, Why This Civ Is In The Game)

       Final Words...

i. Civilization III, What's Different?

  Quick Definitions:

    Civ - Civilization, usually a stand-in for one of the players (CPU or 
          Human). An example Civ would be the French. Civ also is the standard
          abbreviation for the game, Civilization. Thus, Civ III is short for
          Civilization III.
    Tech - Technology, one of the researchable techs in the game
    SMAC - Sid Meier's Alpha Centauri

  Major Changes:

    * The Addition of Culture. Now each city you construct has a "Culture
      Modifier" that will increase its boundaries, and later increase the
      borders of your empire. Culture has other effects as well, such as
      impressing other Civs, and even as a tool for stealing their cities.
      Culture is acquired by building certain buildings, temples, colosseums,
      wonders, etc.

    * Civilization-specific advantages. These advantages are listed in the
      section below called "The Civs." What these amount to is different
      bonuses when playing a different Civ. One Civ might receive an extra
      Scout unit at the beginning, while another has faster workers. Each Civ
      also has a Civ-specific unit, such as the Roman Legionnary, which
      replaces a standard unit (in this case the Swordsman).

    * Barbarians are completely different. Before, Barbarians simply appeared
      on the map and attacked, now they have little villages where they are
      based out of. The village will generate units that are used to attack
      your country. This can be fixed by sacking the village, either with
      military force, or simply having the culture level expand out to include
      the village (which automatically disperses it). Taking a barbarian
      village nets you some money as well. Such villages are always rebuilt
      just outside your culture somewhere, so you must be vigilant.

      Also, Barbarians can no longer capture your cities. They can, however,
      kill your settlers and workers. This leads to one strategy, if you have
      a settler about to be killed by a barbarian, have him build his city
      quickly. Instead of dying, your city gets attacked, but with no defense
      the barbarians just take some money and leave. (Barbarians can also kill
      population and destroy buildings, but with a size 1 city that you just
      built, this isn't a problem.)

    * Diplomacy is completly revamped. You can trade for more things, and just
      generally get more out of the diplomacy screen. For example, instead of
      just being able to trade maps, you can trade your Territory Map (the land
      within your culture) or your whole World Map (all that you have 

    * Golden Ages. Gone are the generic "golden ages" (when you researched
      Philosophy in Civ II you got a free tech, not so in Civ III), replaced
      by a more useful golden age. When you meet a condition of your Civ (it
      could be building a wonder, or winning a battle, it all depends on the
      type of Civ you are playing), you enter a Golden Age, where food and
      production is greatly increased.

        Tip:  DO NOT change governments while in a Golden Age, or you'll lose
              all the benefits while your Civ is in Anarchy.

  Unit Changes:

    * Units no longer have home cities, they are supported by the Empire as a
      whole. The early governments can simply support a number of units per
      city for free, after which you start paying 1 gold per unit. (Republic 
      and Democracy ALWAYS pay for units) That's right, units no longer require
      resource SHIELDS to support. Also, settlers no longer require FOOD to

    * Speaking of settlers, they now cost TWO population to build, and no
      longer build improvements (irrigation, mining, roads), that job has
      fallen to the new WORKER unit. Workers cost ONE population point to
      build. Both are considered NON-COMBAT units and cannot defend cities.
      In fact, if attacked by an enemy Civ, they get captured and will now
      work for the enemy. (Settlers are converted into 2 workers... no one
      will build cities entirely with foreigners)

    * Old units can be upgraded in any city that contains a barracks. This
      involves a small fee for the upgrade (the fee gets larger the more 
      "steps" that must be upgraded. For instance, upgrading a Rifleman to
      Infantry is cheap, but upgrading a Spearman to Infantry would be a lot
      more money). Leonardo's Workshop no longer automatically upgrades units,
      it merely makes it more cost effective.

    * No more diplomats, spies, or caravans (as units). The functions of these
      units has been rolled into the Diplomacy screen (SHIFT-D, or press the
      on-screen button). As soon as you contact a Civ (by which I mean that
      you see one of their units/cities), you can talk to them, trade for
      resources and so forth. Spying is split between your Embassy and the
      later Intelligence Building (which you can build after you get the
      Espionage tech).

        Note:  To build an embassy in a Civ, double-click the STAR icon that is
               attached to your capitol city.

               To set up an Espionage mission, double-click the pentagon icon
               that is attached to the city that built the Intelligence 

        Note:  Since there are no Caravans, there is no FOOD caravan. The only
               food your city gets, it must produce itself.

    * Unit "firepower" was removed. See the "Combat Engine Demystified" section
      below to see how combat is figured out now.

    * Artillery-type units now Bombard rather than attack. This is a special
      attack that will damage (but not destroy) enemy units. If attacking a
      city there is also a chance to kill civilians, or destroy buildings.
      Naval units and Air units can also bombard the landscape.

    * Units have more levels than just "Veteran." They start as "Regulars"
      advance through battle (or barracks) to Veteran then from there become
      Elite. This isn't new if you played SMAC, but is if your last game was
      Civ II. Also, there is no longer an offensive bonus associated with
      being Veteran/Elite, it simply gives you more Hit Points. See the
      "Combat Engine Demystified" section below for more details.

    * Privateers are back! (OK, so they were only in Colonization, but still)
      These wonderful units allow you to attack other naval vessels freely,
      because no one knows that it is your Privateer! Of course, in order for
      these to be effective, you'll want the Patch (v1.16f) which upgrades
      their attack strength to 2 (from 1).

    * Elite units, when victorious in battle, have a chance to produce a GREAT
      LEADER. Leaders are awesome and have 2 great powers, as we'll see below.
      They are considered NON-COMBAT units, and must be protected until they
      can get back to your cities and do one of the following:

        - Hurry Production. The leader is the only force on earth that can
          hurry-up a wonder, but their Hurry ability works on any city
          improvement. Send the leader to a city, then hurry, no matter how
          much production is left, that improvement is now complete. I
          usually used this AFTER building at least one army, as several
          WONDERS require that you have a VICTORIOUS ARMY (the Pentagon
          requires that you simply POSSESS 3 armies at the time). Often I'd
          send him to one of my FRONTIER cities (where they are built next to
          the enemy, or near a large empty area), and switch that city to
          build the most production-intense WONDER. Back to leader, who HURRIES
          the production and finishes the wonder in ONE TURN.

        - Build an Army. You need armies to win tough military campaigns, but
          they have other nice effects as well. For starters, you NEED an
          army to win a battle before you can build the Heroic Epic "small"
          Wonder (which increases the odds that Elite units produce Leaders) or
          the Military Academy which can produce Armies itself.

          Armies work by grouping numerous units together (3 originally, but
          you can get 4 once you build the Pentagon). When you attack with an
          army, the best offensive unit in the army attacks, but Hit Point
          losses are spread amongst all the units, so the army doesn't die
          until all the combined Hit Points have been lost. So, say you combine
          3 Elite Knights together; your army now has 15 Hit points. Now you
          can safely attack nearly anything and know that even if you lose
          10 or more rounds of combat, you'll still win in the end.

            Note:  Once you add a unit to an army, there is NO WAY to get it
                   out of the army. There is also no way to UPGRADE an armies
                   units. (they also can't Pillage, for some reason) So, once
                   you have all the Army related "small" Wonders (Heroic Epic,
                   Military Academy and the Pentagon), consider disbanding your
                   old armies and producing new ones to replace them. Armies
                   cost 400 shields to build, and can only be build in cities
                   with the Military Academy. Disbanding an old army nets your
                   city 100 shields, which can be a great way to get some
                   improvements built.

  Terrain and Resource Changes:

    * There are now Strategic Resources and Luxury Resources.

      Strategic Resources (Iron, Horses, etc.) are what allow you to build the
      better units in the game. You can't build Swordsmen without Iron any
      more than you can build Horsemen without Horses. Each Civ starts out by
      at least SOME sort of strategic resource. If you don't get one, you may
      have to trade with other Civs to get it.

      Luxury Resources (Wine, Spices, Silks, etc.) make your citizens happy.
      Simply have a road on the resource (within your culture) and have that
      road lead to your capitol is enough. If the resource is OUTSIDE of your
      culture, I'd send a settler to fix that, but you could also send a worker
      to build a road to it, then the Worker can found a COLONY. Colonies ONLY
      bring in resources (also Strategic resources), and need to be defended
      lest they be destroyed by hostile barbarians.

        Note:  If your culture expands to the area where the colony is placed,
               the colony vanishes... as it is no longer needed.

      Each Luxury makes one person in each city (that is connected to the road)
      happy. There are 8 luxury resources, so if you have them all then 8
      people are now happy (less if there is significant War Weariness). If
      you build a Marketplace this effect is increased by a lot. Now the first
      2 luxuries make one person happy each, but the next 2 luxuries each make
      2 more people happy. The next 2 luxuries after that make 3 people happy,
      and the last 2 luxuries each make 4 people happy. Thus, if you have
      access to all the luxuries (either by getting them yourself or trading
      for them), one of the first buildings you'll want in each city is a

    * Irrigation now requires access to Fresh Water. This is usually a river,
      but inland lakes work just as well. And of course, you can irrigate from
      your previous irrigations. This makes for some interesting Worker 
      projects when you have to get water out to the drier areas of your 
      empire. Once your city has access to water, it counts as a source of
      fresh water, and you can irrigate from it. Also note that your 
      irrigations can be run diagonally and still have fresh water. Electricity 
      eliminates the need for this, allowing you to irrigate anywhere.

        Note:  You can no longer irrigate Hills in Civ III.

               Also, there are no more Engineers, so you cannot transform the
               terrain either. When you build a city on a desert, it will
               stay a desert.

    * No more Farmland improvement. Railroads will now increase the effects of
      mines or irrigated land by 50%. Notice that it improves only what you
      have built, it doesn't just provide a bonus to what is there. For
      example, a railroad on a square that produces 2 food and 2 shields
      (which would be a mined grassland) would improve ONLY the "mine" giving
      you an extra Shield.

    * Forests, when cut down by your workers, will give a shield bonus (10) to
      the closest city. This does not affect Wonders, which don't take the

    * Rivers run between land squares now, and provide no movement bonus.
      Land near a river gets one extra Commerce. There is a defensive bonus
      when a unit attacks another across a river. Also, until the Engineering
      tech is discovered, rivers are considered to be "un-bridged," so even
      when you build a road across a river, it won't help.

    * Altitude and visibility. Normally units can see 1 square in all 
      directions. However, when they get close to a mountain or a hill, they
      can see it from 2 squares away. When they get to the top of a mountain
      or a hill, they can see in all directions for 2 squares. Hills cannot
      see over Jungles, Hills and Mountains, while Mountains can't see over
      other Mountains. Usually if I want to place a unit near an enemy Civ, I
      look for the nearest Mountain and fortify there... it also has a great
      Defensive Modifier! (see the "Combat Engine Demystified" section)

    * Jungles and Floodplains come with a chance for Disease. Disease, though
      not terribly common, affects you in 2 ways: One, cities built near these
      terrains can have citizens die from disease; Two, units on these terrains
      can themselves just die from disease. Not sure if the Hospital reduces
      these effects.

        Note:  Your city doesn't have to be RIGHT NEXT TO one of the terrains,
               if it has Jungle or Floodplains ANYWHERE in its "city radius"
               it has a chance for disease.

    * Impassable Terrains. Catapults and Cannons can't enter Jungles or

  Changes to Cities:

    * Production Queue. You can now instruct cities to build one thing after
      another. You add items to the queue by holding SHIFT while you click
      what you want to add. Replacing an item already on the queue requires
      that you click that item, then SHIFT-click the new item to replace it.

        Note:  Greyed-out improvements are ones that you cannot build at the
               moment. This usually means that you are building that 
               improvement (almost always a Wonder) in another city. Wonders
               can also be greyed out if you try to switch production from
               one thing to the Wonder (it won't let you). Which means that
               you can't Hurry the production of a Temple and try to switch it
               to an Oracle (to build it faster).

      If you have a queue that you want to SAVE for future cities, press
      SHIFT-Q to save it, then later just Q to load it.

    * War Weariness. Republics and Democracies don't like to be at war, and
      will tend to become unhappy while at war. The longer a war goes on, the
      worse the effect will be. This can be somewhat countered with Temples,
      Cathedrals, Luxuries and so on (things that NORMALLY reduce unhappiness
      work just fine), as well as Police Stations and the Universal Suffrage
      Wonder (things that reduce War Weariness itself). Nothing will ever
      eliminate the effects of war weariness. In fact, in a Democracy, War
      Weariness has such an effect that you won't want to declare war on
      anyone, and even when you do, you'll want peace as FAST as possible.

      Look on the bright side, at least units outside of the city don't cause
      unhappiness as they did in Civ II.

    * Small Wonders. These bad boys can be built by ALL civilizations, not just
      the first to get them. Their effects are in many ways, better than those
      of the Great Wonders. These are listed in the "Wonders of the World"
      section below.

    * Conquering Cities. You get an option to "raze" the city, which is
      terribly useful. Cities that ARE captured will have "resistors", elements
      of the population that are against your rule. Captured cities also lose
      all their improvements, meaning that even when the resistance is quelled,
      the populace is very unhappy (especially if you're still at war with
      their homeland). And at least until the patch, cities of 1 population
      aren't automatically razed. (With the Patch, they are)


    * You can now use the Tech Tree directly to set tech goals. Want Monarchy,
      but can't research it yet? Set it as your Goal. On the Science Adviser
      screen there is the tech tree, click on Monarchy and he'll get all the
      advances needed to get to Monarchy. This screen also comes up when you
      get a new tech (under "What's the Big Picture?").

    * Ages. There are now 4 ages to the game, from ancient to modern. While in
      one age, you can't get techs from the next age. In fact, the beginning
      techs of an age have no prerequisite other than that you be in that age.
      You advance in Age when you have MOST (not all) of the techs in your
      current age. Researching techs from previous ages is then easier to do,
      and comes at a reduced cost.

  What's Gone:

    * Bribery. No spies equals no unit bribery. Your armies will remain your

    * Engineers. Your workers are upgraded automatically with new skills when
      you gain the right tech. I do miss the 2 movement of engineers, though.
      You also can't Alter the terrain (that is, turn Plains to Grassland).

    * Fundamentalism.

    * The Senate. Now you can declare war on whomever you please as a Republic
      or a Democracy. The only thing stopping you is the War Weariness once
      you're at war.

    * Tax/Science/Luxury caps. Now you can set these rates to whatever you 

    * Zones of Control. Your armies used to (in Civ II) have an area around
      them where enemy armies could not tread. This is gone. So, no more
      setting just a FEW units to guard your border; if you want to keep the
      enemy out, you must fortify the ENTIRE border.

      Some units (and units that are fortified in a Fortress) get a Free Attack
      on units that cross their sights.

    Note:  Saved Games are very large. If you find yourself saving often (and
           why wouldn't you?) your hard drive will get filled up rapidly.  Be
           sure to every once in a while go through and delete your old and
           useless saved games.

           Alternatively, you could just have ONE save per civilization 
           session. Consider: You play as the French, so your saved game is
           always called "French1". Every time you save, you save over this
           game. If you ever need to go back to an OLDER save, there are still
           the auto-saves available. This way you don't create a large archive
           of old games.

ii. Patch Info

  Patch Info page:

  Direct Download Link:

  Important!  If you are running Windows XP, the patch does work, but to get
  the game to run with it, you may need to make one small alteration to a game
  file.  Here is what to do:

  1. Open up the Civilization3.ini file. Don't know how? Go to Start > Run >
     then type Notepad.exe. From here go to File > Open >
     C:\Program Files\Infogrames Interactive\Civilization III\Civilization3.ini

  2. This is a list of game options.  At the bottom of this list add this line
     exactly as it appears:


  3. If you had any Compatibility Modes set up to play the game before the
     patch, turn these OFF. You will no longer need them.

  4. Play and enjoy!

Additions v1.16f: (from the readme.txt, with some of my notes)

  * We've added an ini file setting, Refresh. To use, open the
    civilization3.ini and add 'Refresh=60'. You can try higher frequencies, but 
    60 is good starting location. If it can't set the frequency, it will 
    default to what Windows believes it should be. If you are not having 
    monitor or frequency problems, do not use this ini setting.
  * Players now receive a message when a wonder is made obsolete.
  * There is now a text prompt on using the production queue in the City 
    Display screen.
  * Editor: Added Barbarian Combat Bonus to difficulty level tab.
  * Editor: Added Cost Factor to difficulty level tab.
  * Editor: Added AI unit support bonus to difficulty level tab.
  * Editor: Added AI bonus starting units to difficulty level tab.
  * Editor: Added AI max. govt. transition time to difficulty level tab.
  * Editor: Added corruption modifier to difficulty level tab.
      Note: This is called Optimum City Level %. Another way to change 
            corruption levels, also in the Editor, is to edit the World Sizes 
            setting called Optimum Number of Cities, the higher the better... 
            however, this also increases the number of cities you need before 
            you can get the Forbidden Palace).
  * Editor: Added a number of armies requirement for Improvements and Wonders.
  * Editor: Added a small wonder ability checkbox for "Requires a Victorious  
    Army" for Improvements and Wonders.
  * Editor: On General Settings, added Border Factor which controls border
  * Editor: On General Settings, added Future Tech Cost.
  * Editor: On General Settings, added Min. Tech Turns.
  * Editor: On General Settings, added Max. Tech Turns.
  * Editor: On General Settings, added Golden Age Duration.
  * Editor: Added mission cost to Diplomats and Spies page.
  * Added "Color Blind Help" pref (gives the name of the civ in the city title 
  * Added "Ask for Build Orders after Unit Construction" pref
  * Added "Always Start Building Previously Built Unit" pref
  * Added "Show Civil Disorder Pop-Up" pref (useful if you don't want to hunt
    around the map looking for burning cities, can also change the 
    entertainment levels directly)
  * Added "Culturally Linked Starting Locations" (civs are placed on maps in
    close proximity to other civs of the same culture; please note that not 
    using this pref can lead to sub-optimal arrangements of civ colors).
  * Added "Show Our Manual/Our Automatic/Enemy/Friend Moves" preferences.

Changes v1.16f:
  * The cost of building a Palace is now based on the number of cities in your 
  * The Sun Icon on the Info Box represents the amount of global warming 
    affecting the game. If the sun does not display, there is insufficient 
    global warming to affect the terrain. Once the sun displays, the brighter 
    it is, the greater the impact of global warming.
  * It's slightly easier to culturally acquire cities.
  * Forests planted on tundra always display as pine.
  * Irrigation sorts slightly differently.
  * Goody hut console popup display times increased.
  * Relationship lines are no longer displayed on the Foreign Advisor unless 
    the player has contact with both civilizations.
  * Corruption effects have been reduced.
  * Cultural priority of AI has been reduced.
  * Submarine and Nuclear Submarine now have an offense value of 8.
  * Paratroops now have a range of 6.
  * Privateer now has an offense value of 2.
  * Corruption calculations for Communism are now flat for the number-of-cities
  * Borders now draw over forest and jungle.
  * Shield bonus from clearing forest can only be received once per game.
  * Palaces and spaceship parts can only be built in one city at a time.
  * Improved City Governor Performance.
  * The maximum number of cities permitted in a game is 512, increased from 256
  * Added information about healing units to Barracks civilopedia entry.
  * Clarified that railroads increase output of mines and irrigation in 
    civilopedia entry.
  * Added hyperlink to Ocean in Caravel civilopedia entry.
  * The maximum number of turns it can take to research an advance has been 
    increased from 32 to 40.
  * Editor: Removed unused Description field from Improvements and Wonders.
  * Police Stations now reduce corruption in the city they are built in.
  * Editor: On General Settings, renamed Border Expansion Multiplier to Lvl.

Fixes v1.16f:
  * Fixed scroll problem on some Nvidia graphics cards.
  * The correct city now highlights on the Domestic and Cultural advisor 
    screens when scroll bar displays.
  * Precision Bombing now works as intended.
  * Sorting columns on the Domestic advisor screen now stay sorted.
  * Traded advances that cause an era transition, now allows the player to 
    select the advance to research in the new era.
  * The five states an AI can be in on the Diplomacy screen, can now be seen on
    the mouse over advisor messages on the Foreign advisor.
  * The problem of not being able to build 'Wealth' in some cities has been
  * Messages about resources discovered that the player doesn't have the 
    advance to use no longer display.
  * Incorrect popup concerning placing new embassies with civilizations you're 
    at war with no longer displays.
  * Occasional instances of selected units not stay centered fixed.
  * Synthetic Fibers now has the correct prerequisite advance, Ecology.
  * The Great Lighthouse no longer permits Galleys to travel on Ocean tiles.
  * The AI no longer reacts to submarines that it cannot see.
  * Multi-cultural cities no longer occasionally produce barbarian settlers or 
  * Minimap now updates when interface is hidden.
  * Units no longer occasionally disappear at the poles.
  * 'Combo' boxes now are set to the maximum size needed.
  * Long advance names no longer overrun the Info Box when in Golden Age.
  * Bubble-text on the replay screen now correctly clears itself.
  * The last line in the Event View of the replay screen is now fully visible.
  * You can now see a cities population on the City Title bar regardless of 
    team color or state.
  * Selecting a 'grayed out' option in the Diplomacy screen no longer clears 
    the Foreign Advisor's advice.
  * Correctly small graphic corruption on Domestic Advisor popups.
  * Right-Click flyout menus no longer display if you use a function key to 
    open an advisor screen.
  * You can no longer unload air units from a carrier. You need to execute a
    rebase mission.
  * You can no longer demand very large amounts of gold in diplomacy.
  * Modified advance trees now load correctly.
  * Fixed AI exploit with regards to giving cities away in diplomacy.
  * Air superiority missions work as intended.
  * Quick Start will now use the number of civs selected in the previously 
    generated game.
  * Retiring from a Conquest-only game no longer is recorded as a victory.
  * Fixed AI problem with resources on custom maps.
  * Team color on horseman unit correctly displays.
  * French Musketeer fortify animation now plays.
  * Governors no longer build privateers when set to build no units.
  * Fixed AI bug allowing the user to infinitely postpone invasions by
    shuffling units around.
  * Hall of Fame screen now correctly lists the difficulty levels.
  * Games that don't save due to low hard drive space now displays an error 
  * A save corruption problem was fixed.
  * Fixed fatal related to tiles on the edge of the map.
  * Once the UN is completed, you are no longer prompted to vote every turn.
  * You no longer declare war by accidentally passing over a hidden submarine.
  * Fixed infinite loop with automation.
  * Other typos and civilopedia mistakes were also corrected...

iii. Using the Map Editor

  Civilization III ships with a somewhat functional Map Editor (found in the
  same Start Menu group as the game).

  First off, you can't actually create scenarios with the map editor. Yes, I
  know there is a Scenario menu, but no, you can't make one. Yet.  There is
  also no way to ZOOM OUT on your map to get the big picture.  Annoying since
  there isn't a mini-map either. What does this mean? That you will probably
  want to just randomly generate a map (Map > Generate Map), and then start

  The Map Generation options are the same here as when you start a new game,
  map size, land type, and so on.  World Seed affects the position of special
  resources (and other things) on the map. There's no particular reason to use

    Note:  To edit the Rules for the map, you need to click on the Tools menu,
           then UNSELECT the "Use Default Rules" option. This unlocks the
           Rules menu.

           Also note, the edited rules only count for your created map.  If
           you go to a normal game, the rules will be the default rules.

    Note:  To change the map size (by which I mean to make a larger map than
           "Huge" or a smaller map than "Tiny"), you need to edit the Rules
           BEFORE generating your map. Go to the World Sizes Rule, and change
           the dimensions of the map. Remember that really large maps will
           drag down game performance.

  Next thing to know, once you have a map, is that you can't set where YOU will
  start a game.  All you can set is a generic "Set Player Starting Location",
  which you may or may not use (it could go to the CPU). If you do want to
  "cheat" your game, what you can do is improve one of the Starting Locations.
  Then when you load up the map in the game, if you don't start at the right
  place, restart (CTRL-SHIFT-Q) and try it again.

  There are 3 main items in editing a map: the Terrain itself, the Resources
  (both strategic and luxurious) and the "Overlays" (such as "Goodie" huts and
  Rivers). These 3 buttons are on the toolbar (they're the green ones, with the
  "wheat" in the middle). To the right of those buttons are the Terrain Brush
  sizes, from small to large, followed by the Generate Random Map button.

  By default the editor uses Desert tiles 1x1 in size.

1. Game Basics (or, So You've Never Played a Civ Before?)

  This section is intended for people who have never played any of the Civ
  games before, and those who don't even have Civ III and are curious about it.
  Anyone else, feel free to skip to the next section, "The Civs."

2. The Civs

  Commerical Civs experience less corruption, and produce more Commerce in
  large cities. This bonus works the best during the middle ages when your
  cities are large enough to produce the bonus commerce. Not sure how much
  corruption is reduced, but it isn't by that much.

  Expansionist Civs start with an extra unit, the Scout, which has 2 movement
  points. Early in the game this is a good advantage to exploration. Barbarian
  villages produce more money when captured. Goodie Huts are more profitable 
  and never produce Barbarians. Scouts are the real treat here since you can 
  avoid building Warriors for exploration purposes, your scout works just fine.
  Both of their bonuses are for the beginning of the game ONLY. Scouts are
  decent, but only until you get Horsemen. And getting bonuses from Goodie Huts
  is nice, but only if there are Goodie Huts to find.

  Industrious Civs have faster workers (2x, this bonus stacks with Replaceable
  Parts for a 4x bonus) and the "city" squares produce extra shields when the
  population goes over 6.  My personal favorite as the super-fast workers are
  nice, you'll be able to expand your empire at a faster rate with fast workers
  building roads everywhere. Why not just take a non-industrious civ and simply
  build MORE workers? Well, instead of having to spend shields and population
  building extra workers, you could use those same shields and pop to build

    Note:  Industrial Workers seem to work slower while in Anarchy.

           Captured Workers do not get the Industrial Bonus. This holds true
           if you aren't Industrial yourself and capture Workers from an 
           Industrial Civ.

  Militaristic Civ's units advance in rank faster (from veteran to elite) and
  produce more Leaders. Barracks and Coastal Fortresses are cheaper to produce
  by 50%. My second favorite on the list for the simple reason that you get
  more leaders, which allows you to build armies quicker, more often and to
  better effect. Also with a lot of leaders so you can VERY QUICKLY build any
  wonder you like.

    Tip:  The first leader you get should ALWAYS create an Army. This army then
          needs to immediately attack an enemy Civ's unit. Why? There are
          two Small Wonders that require having a Victorious Army, while one
          requires that you have three armies.

          Heroic Epic - Have a victorious army
          Military Academy - Have a victorious army
          Pentagon - Have three armies at one time

  Religious Civs get Temples and Cathedrals at half cost. That is it takes
  half the Production Shields to build them. They also change governments
  quicker having only 1 turn at Anarchy.

  Scientific Civs get a similar bonus for Research Buildings: Libraries,
  Universities and Research Labs. At the start of each Age, scientific Civs
  get an extra Tech for free.

A Quick Reference Table:

  Civ       Traits    Free Techs                         Special Unit (Replace)
  -------   --------  ---------------------------------  ----------------------
  America   Ind, Exp  Masonry, Pottery                   F-15     (Jet Fighter)
  Aztec     Mil, Rel  Warrior Code, Ceremonial Burial    Jaguar Warrior  (War.)
  Babylon   Rel, Sci  Ceremonial Burial, Bronze Working  Bowman        (Archer)
  Britain   Exp, Com  Pottery, Alphabet                  Man-o-War    (Frigate)
  China     Ind, Sci  Masonry, Bronze Working            Rider         (Knight)
  Egypt     Ind, Rel  Masonry, Ceremonial Burial         War Chariots (Chariot)
  France    Ind, Com  Masonry, Alphabet                  Musketeer  (Musketman)
  Germany   Mil, Sci  Warrior Code, Bronze Working       Panzer          (Tank)
  Greece    Sci, Com  Bronze Working, Alphabet           Hoplite     (Spearmen)
  India     Rel, Com  Ceremonial Burial, Alphabet        War Elephants (Knight)
  Iroquois  Exp, Rel  Pottery, Ceremonial Burial         M. Warrior  (Horseman)
  Japan     Mil, Rel  Warrior Code, Ceremonial Burial    Samurai       (Knight)
  Persia    Mil, Com  Warrior Code, Alphabet             Immortals  (Swordsmen)
  Rome      Ind, Mil  Masonry, Warrior Code              Legionnary (Swordsmen)
  Russia    Exp, Sci  Pottery, Bronze Working            Cossack      (Cavalry)
  Zulus     Mil, Exp  Pottery, Warrior Code              Impi        (Spearman)

The Special Units:

  These are roughly sorted by date, or when the Civ would have access to the
  special unit.  I figure the best special units are the ones you get early in
  the game to give you an advantage over your enemies. Gaining a special unit
  late in the game is almost useless.


    Jaguar Warrior - Aztec - One of only 2 special units that can be built
      (1-1-2)                immediately, and this one is a doozy. Consider
                             this, there are 2 units at the beginning of the
                             game with 2 movement points, the other being the
                             scout, and the Jaguar Warrior is the only one of
                             those that can attack. Use mostly for exploration
                             purposes. The Jaguar has the same stats as the
                             Chariot, but costs half as much to build. Use the
                             Jaguar to map out the world quickly, then have
                             settlers fill it in with cities.

                             Because of this unit, the Aztecs (a Religious,
                             Militaristic Civ) can also be seen as a half-
                             Expansionist. They get a unit comparable to the
                             scout (and can defend itself, unlike the scout).
                             The Aztecs can thus probably explore the map
                             quicker than anyone else.

    Hoplite        - Greek - The only other unit that can be immediately built,
      (1-3-1)                even though it requires Bronze Working (one of
                             the techs the Greeks start with, conveniently
                             enough). The Hoplite is a Spearman with +1 to
                             Defense, giving him the same stats as the
                             medieval Pikeman. This gives the Greeks the first
                             Age and the first half of the second age to have
                             the BEST DEFENSIVE UNIT in the game. Plus, 
                             Hoplites are cheaper to produce than Pikemen, so
                             even when you get Feudalism, you will still want
                             Hoplites. Oh, and Hoplites don't require Iron
                             either (Pikemen do).

    Impi            - Zulu - The Impi is a Spearman with +1 to movement.  This
      (1-2-2)                gives you a Fast unit without having to find
                             horses (nice). However, Zulus don't start with
                             Bronze Working, so they would need to get that
                             first to get their special unit, which could take
                             40 turns. If possible, trade to get Bronze 
                             Working. Impi are the only units with 2 movement
                             that can DEFEND until Knights, so use them
                             accordingly. Send in armies of Horsemen, guarded
                             by your Impis. They'll move in SWIFLY, but
                             SECURELY with the same defensive rating of 
                             Spearmen. With Impis and Horsemen together, you
                             can actually Blitz in the ancient era!

                             Plus, just like all multi-movement units, the Impi
                             will retreat if they are losing a battle, a nice
                             bonus for a spearman to have.

    War Chariots   - Egypt - The War Chariot is a chariot with +1 attack, 
      (2-1-2)                giving them the same ratings as a Horseman. They
                             also don't start with the Wheel and would need to
                             research it. Also, unlike the Impi, chariots
                             require Horses. The advantage? Horsemen cost
                             twice as many shield to build as War Chariots,
                             making them cheap and fast attack units. Difficult
                             to mount a successful invasion with due to the
                             time to research the Wheel; most enemies will have
                             spearmen by that point.

    Bowman    - Babylonian - An archer with +1 to their defense. Requires one
      (2-2-1)                level of tech to get (Warrior Code), which could
                             take up to 40 turns to get (or you could trade
                             for it, or find it in a Goodie Hut). If, and only
                             if, you get the Bowmen early enough, you can use
                             them to good effect, they're the best early unit
                             in the game. However, they become ineffective
                             after Iron Working.

    Mounted Warrior - Iroquois - A Horseman with +1 to attack strength.  This
      (3-1-2)                Makes them the most deadly fast attack unit until
                             the Knight, but still a difficult unit to use
                             without infantry support (Spearmen, for example).
                             Same attack as the Swordsmen, but with the benefit
                             of being a fast unit. Requires horses to build.

    Legionnary    - Romans - My personal favorite special unit, the Legionnary
      (3-3-1)                is a Swordsman with +1 defense. With 3 attack
                             power and 3 defensive power, the Legionnary is a
                             good, all-around fighting force. They can be used
                             by themselves to attack other nations, without
                             the benefit of a special "defensive" unit to
                             protect them. Outclassed only when the Knight
                             appears, the Legionnary will terrorize the ancient
                             world. The only limit on legionnaries is that it
                             requires Iron Working to build, and Iron in your
                             resource box.

    Immortals    - Perians - The Immortals are also Swordsmen, but they get +1
      (4-2-1)                to attack power rather than defense. This makes
                             them just as strong on offense as a Knight
                             (although without the defense or the movement).
                             Since you get Immortals an entire AGE before
                             Knights appear, there is plenty of time to smite
                             your foes with them... So long as you get Iron
                             Working early enough, and have a source of Iron,
                             that is.


    War Elephant - Indians - Essentially War Elephants are knights that require
      (4-3-2)                NO resources to build (normally you need Iron AND
                             Horses). Great advantage if you don't HAVE Iron
                             or Horses, not so good if you DO. They have no
                             other bonuses, their attack and defense are
                             identical to the Knight.

    Samurai     - Japanese - Another Knight replacement, this one doesn't 
      (4-4-2)                require horses (but still needs iron). Apparently
                             Samurai can run quite well. The Samurai gets +1
                             to his Defense. A good mix of offense and defense,
                             in fact he'll be the best defender of the age,
                             just as good as Musketmen even. Although Gunpowder
                             is close to being researched at this time, Samurai
                             still don't need Saltpeter, and unlike Musketmen,
                             can also attack. (The Samurai is SLIGHTLY more
                             expensive to build than a Musketman)

    Rider        - Chinese - The final Knight replacement, this one gets +1 to
      (4-3-3)                its movement, giving it the range of the Cavalry.
                             Also, because of its 3 movement points, the Rider
                             exerts a "zone of control" and gains an attack of
                             opportunity automatically whenever an enemy unit
                             moves by. The Rider still requires both Iron and
                             Horses, but until Military Tradition and the
                             Cavalary come around, there isn't anything faster
                             or stronger.
    Man-O-War    - English - A replacement for the Frigate, the Man-O-War gets
      (3-2-4)                +1 to its attack power. I don't see the point
                             here, for two reasons. One, naval units aren't
                             all that useful in the game. (Although there are
                             a great many things you can do IN SUPPORT of land
                             units with naval units) Two, frigates give way to
                             Ironclads within only a few advances, thus the
                             Man-O-War won't be the king of the seas for long.


    Cossack      - Russian - A Cavalry with +1 to its defensive power. The
      (6-4-3)                extra point of defense is nice, but not too
                             terribly useful. It amounts to the same difference
                             between Pikemen and Musketmen. Cossacks will
                             still lose to Cavalry most the time, and even
                             Knights half the time (assuming no defensive
                             bonuses, such as fortifications and hills). Still,
                             were your Cossack to get in trouble in enemy
                             territory, he could FIND a mountain to fortify on,
                             he'd be that much safer than a similar Cavalry.

    Musketeer     - French - A musketman with +1 to attack power. Probably the
      (3-4-1)                second most useless unit in the game (I don't much
                             care for the Man-O-War either). Despite having
                             +1 attack power, the musketeer is STILL a
                             defensive unit, and attacking with a defensive
                             unit is fairly silly. The only real positive here
                             is that if your cities are attacked, you could
                             counter-attack with better power than if you had
                             just a musketman. (Although I would still just
                             wait until a Knight or Cavalry came by to clear
                             the enemy out)


    Panzer       - Germans - The Panzer is a Tank with a +1 movement rate.
      (16-8-3)               The great drawback of normal tanks (as compared
                             with cavalry) is the lessened movement. The
                             Panzer fixes this (at least for the Germans).
                             This unit is ideally suited for the same purpose
                             as its historical equivalent, go in there and
                             Blitz the enemy. Slip AROUND the enemy strongholds
                             at the border to the soft interior. Pick off
                             the weaker cities, workers; then destroy their
                             road network.

    F-15        - American - Like a Jet Fighter, but with +2 to bombard, and
      (8-4-1/6)              the "precision" bombing feature (doesn't work
      (4b 2r)                unless you have the patch). Also, building an
                             F-15 may trigger a Golden Age for the Americans.

                             As for its bombard ability, it also gets a +1 to
                             its rate of fire, giving it essentially an extra
                             bombard attack.

Civ-Specific Strategies:

  Babylon, the Cultural Warriors

    Babylon is the only Civ that gets both Religious and Scientific. Why is
    this significant? Because those 2 bonuses each make buildings cheaper to
    build. Religious and Scientific buildings all create culture... in other
    words, Babylon will be the center of the world's culture!

    So, instead of going to war with someone, go build a city by their empire,
    and quickly build in a Temple, Library, University, Cathedral. With a high
    culture rating empire-wide, you should quite easily start to siphon off
    their cities.

3. Building an Empire

The Ancient Era:

  Decision 1:  Where to build your capitol?

  Answer 1:    Where you start. No matter what resources are just a few too
               many squares away, it isn't worth the time to move out and build
               your capitol late. Even moving out just ONE square puts your
               empire behind everyone else, and with a smart enemy AI against
               you, you'll need every turn to your advantage.

               Of course, if you're started in a COMPLETELY terrible area
               (such as a Tundra), you may just want to quit and start over.

  Decision 1B: Should I set my Worker to Automatic?

  Answer 1B:   No, unless you really don't like doing it yourself. Automation
               is all well and good, but doesn't offer the control of doing it

               There are some very useful Automation commands you can give:

                 A       - Automate Worker, he'll work on what the CPU wants
                 SHIFT+A - Automate Worker; Worker won't alter pre-existing 
                           improvements (so he won't irrigate your mined 
                 SHIFT+I - Automate Worker at THIS city, only. The Worker will 
                           stay with the nearby city and improve it.
                 SHIFT+P - Automate Worker; Worker will automatically clean up 
                           POLLUTION. This is the single most useful automation 
                           in the game. Once you start getting pollution, set 
                           at least SIX (more if you have a larger empire) 
                           workers to pollution control. I doubt that you'll 
                           get 6 pollutions appearing in a turn, however, the 
                           workers can gang up on a single pollution and get 
                           rid of it much quicker.

                           Note:  If there is no pollution around, this command
                                  won't work. If an already automated settler's
                                  turn comes up and there is no more pollution,
                                  the automation ends.

                 SHIFT+F - Automate Worker; Worker will ONLY clear forests. 
                           Not sure about the value of this one.
                 SHIFT+J - Automate Worker; Worker will ONLY clear jungles. 
                           Better than forests, as jungles take more time and 
                           more workers.

  Once you have your capitol built, you must decide what to do next. This 
  depends on who you are playing:

    Expansionist - Send out your Scout to explore the area. Build one warrior
                   to defend your empire (Spearmen if you have them), then next
                   build a Settler to found new cities.

    Scientific   - Build 2 warriors for exploration, then one Spearman for

    Everyone Else - Build several Warriors, 2 to explore and one to defend your
                    city. (Or a Spearman if you can)

    Note:  I only recommend ONE warrior for city defense at the beginning for
           several reasons. First, your only enemy at the moment is the
           Barbarian tribes. Barbarians are weak, and probably will lose to
           your warrior. Even then I've never had Barbarians attack my capitol.
           Second, you don't want warriors for defense, you want them only to
           explore (and if you have Scouts, you don't want them at all).
           Essentially the defending Warrior is a placeholder unit, staying
           home until a Spearman is ready, that is, until Bronze Working is

    Tip:   Make sure that your cities are defended by your 2 best defensive
           units at ALL times.

    So, my capitol build queue will often look like this:


    Basically you want to be building a Settler WHENEVER you have 3 or more
    population points. If you have good FOOD (Grain or Cows) in your city, then
    you might want to build more settlers.

  Decision 2:  What should your Worker be doing? Irrigation, Roads or Mines?

  Answer 2:    Mines and Roads, don't irrigate. This is a general rule, here
               are some specifics (and some reasoning).

               Grassland (minerals, or without) - Mine with Road
               Plains - Irrigate with Road
               Desert - Irrigate with Road
               Hills, Mountains - Mine with Road
               Tundra - Plant Forest (not available until Engineering)

               Why? While under a despotism, no piece of land can produce more
               than 2 food. Grassland start with 2 food, so irrigation has no
               benefit. However, if you add a MINE to the land, then it 
               produces +1 production. Also, due to population limits (your
               city won't grow past 6 until Aqueducts, or a River; nor past
               12 without a Hospital) your cities don't need the extra food at
               ALL. So, mine those grasses!

               There is, of course, an exception. Cities that don't have much
               food (either because they're in a desert, tundra, or too close
               to the mountains) need irrigations to keep them going.

  Tip:  Mine all grasslands while despotism. Mine all grasslands with Minerals 
        until that city gets a Factory, then reduce production/pollution by 
        irrigating those mined areas.

        ALTERNATIVELY, production produces pollution, but then so does 
        population. You could keep the extra production, thus limiting the size
        of the city. Then wait until you can build Mass Transits to irrigate
        the land to grow the city.

        Remember that population increases your Civ Score.

    As soon as you get any cities built, have your Worker run a road out to
    that city to keep a network of cities going. If possible, have the Worker
    build the road out BEFORE you build the city. This isn't so important right
    now at the beginning of the game, but becomes more so when you need access
    to resources (such as Iron) to build specific units (such as Pikemen) in
    that new city.

    Your new city's Queue should be a little different:

      Warrior (Spearman, if possible)
      Warrior (Spearman)

    Thus your second city is geared to Expand the Empire.

  Decision 3:  What should you be researching?

  Answer 3:    Tough call, especially since all the Civs start with different
               initial techs.

               Consider this: You need to get the Special Resources (iron,
               horses, etc.), so you may want to research with that in mind.
               For example, take the Wheel first to find horses, then get
               Iron Working to find iron. Once you spot the resource, 
               immediately send out a settler to claim that land for your

                 Tip:  Someone else get to the resource first? Well, if they
                       didn't build on TOP of the resource, there is a way
                       to get it back non-violently. Send a settler to build
                       a city RIGHT NEXT TO the resource. Then engage in some
                       cultural warfare. Build the temple, library and any
                       other cultural building you can get.

                       When your city's Total Culture is greater than the
                       other Civ's city, your city gets the terrain square and
                       the special resource as well.

                       Remember, that this works in reverse as well, and that
                       the enemy Civ's could do the exact same thing to you.
                       Also, if the enemy city's culture ever exceeds yours
                       (say, they caught up by building a wonder), then they
                       take the resource back.

               If you are a Scientific Civ, you need to get Literature so you
               can start building your Cheap Libraries. (Check the Big Picture,
               or the Science Adviser to plot a path to the appropriate tech
               that you want. If you want to research Literature, but can't
               get it right now, on the science adviser screen, click 
               Literature, and your Adviser will get all the techs needed to
               get it)

               Good Early Techs:  The Wheel/Horseback Riding (to find horses)
                                  Iron Working (to find Iron, and build armies)
                                  Code of Laws (courthouse)
                                  Literature (library, Great Library)
                                  Monarchy (so much better than Despotism)

               Remember that you CAN trade for techs that you don't have, as
               well as gaining them through the Great Library (if you get it).

    The Empire should now be set up mostly to manufacture Settlers to expand
    its borders. Typically only the first few cities I build are required to
    continually build settlers (and even then, they might only build 2 settlers
    before switching to Cultural improvements). This is because once you get
    enough cities, the empire can expand much more easily.

    Here is a VERY basic run-through of what I'm talking about (assume that
    I also build in military units):

      City 1 -- > Settler    City 1 -- > Settler     City 1 -- > Temple
                             City 2 -- > Settler     City 2 -- > Settler
                                                     City 3 -- > Settler
                                                     City 4 -- > Settler

      City 1 -- > Settler    City 1 -- > Wonder
      City 2 -- > Temple     City 2 -- > Settler
      City 3 -- > Settler    City 3 -- > Temple
      City 4 -- > Settler    City 4 -- > Temple
      City 5 -- > Settler    City 5 -- > Settler
      City 6 -- > Settler     etc...
      City 7 -- > Settler

    Follow this for a while and you'll expand VERY quickly. I generally stop
    doing this once I get Literture, then I build libraries in my Core Cities
    (the oldest ones). All frontier cities continue to build settlers to expand
    the empire, of course.

  Decision 4:  When should I go to war with my annoying neighbors?

  Answer 4:    Rarely, and only when you can win. In general, the best time to
               attack your enemies is when you have a superiority in some way.
               What you need is one of the following:

                 Better Units - either through superior Tech, or Special Units
                                (such as the Persian Immortals, or the Roman
                 More Units   - Try to build a horde of horsemen. Not too
                                advanced, and will lose more often than not, 
                                but, hey, you have enough forces to win in the 
                 A Clear Tactical Advantage - Such as a Civ from another
                                continent that built a few cities on your
                                continent. This way you can attack their cities
                                and they can't get reinforcements in to attack
                                you before their cities are taken.

               This brings up another point, researching specific techs with
               war in mind. For example, while playing as the Persians, the
               first tech I got was Iron Working so that I could build
               Immortals. In the Ancient Era, there is NO better unit than the
               Immortals, in fact, they don't become obsolete until the Knight!
               If you can get Iron Working by 3000 BC, that should give you
               3000 years of military superiority. The same applies to all
               Civs that have early Special Units, such as the Romans.

               (For more information, check out the previous section, 
               "The Civs," or the later section, "War, What Is It Good For?")

  Decision 5:  When should I switch governments? (from Despotism to Monarchy,
               or even straight to Republic)

  Answer 5:

The Middle Ages:

The Industrial Age:

The Modern Era:

  Convert all captured workers into population, then if you are a Despotism,
  turn those workers into improvements by Force Labor.

  Special Resources CAN be depleted, but this is a random effect, not caused
  by overuse. Example, I had 2 sources of Iron, one I had had for many years,
  one just added to the road network. Well, the one I just barely got 
  disappeared within a few turns, while the other Iron stayed with me until
  the end.

  Captured Cities can REVERT back to their original owner, based on the rules
  of Cultural Conquest. Thus if you capture a city under Despotism, you may
  want to Force Labor the citizens to death. If you do this to clean out the
  population (down to 1), then let it grow again (such that the new citizen
  is from YOUR nation's culture), Force Labor one last time to get rid of the

4. Culture

5. Diplomacy

  You can trade for pretty much anything in Civ III, trouble is, is the trade
  worth it to you?  Remember these few concepts:

    1. Nothing is free, everything has a cost.
    2. Every diplomatic move should be based on something more, don't trade on
       a whim. (the CPU doesn't)
    3. Consider the value of what you have, don't sell it for less than it is

  Let's start at the beginning. NOTHING IS FREE AND EVERYTHING HAS A COST.
  This just means that there is no free ride here, you won't get everything
  you want. Consider this, you want Rome's World Map, but don't want them to
  have yours (a sensible precaution, see the section on "War, What is it Good
  For?"). You might think it worthwhile to give them a mere 50 gold, while they
  want 3 of your better techs.

    Note:  You can't trade techs that they can't currently research. In other
           words, if you are in the Modern Era, and they're still mired in the
           middle ages, you can't give them Fission.

  Also, even if you do get a great deal, there may be political costs involved.
  Suppose you blackmail England into giving you one of their cities. ("Give
  me 'New London' or else!") They may give in to your demand and hand over the
  city, but their attitude towards you will shift. They'll be more likely to
  attack you in the future, and less likely to help you.

  Only engage in diplomacy when you need to; EVERY DIPLOMATIC MOVE SHOULD BE
  means that you should avoid "trolling" for a deal. Only trade away your
  extra spice, for example, when you need to get something, say, their newly
  updated World Map. Also consider the consequences of what you are trading.
  If the CPU feels that you are getting a way too good deal (even if they
  accept it) there are negative political consequences, namely that they don't
  like you as much.

    Note:  Unconfirmed, but when I create a large number of deals, I seem to
           get a negative reputation as a "crafty" ruler. As near as I can tell
           this makes other Civs start their trading sessions by offering me
           worse deals than usual.

  Tech Trading:

    The Value of tech, if you choose to buy or sell it, depends upon how many
    other Civs have that tech. For example, if you are selling Music Theory to
    the ONLY Civ that doesn't have it, they won't pay much for it. However, if
    you are the FIRST Civ to get Music Theory, and decide to sell it, you'll
    get much more for it.

    So, if you are going to sell your techs, try to sell first to the richest
    Civ out there. If you need an idea of what the tech is worth, ask them what
    they are willing to deal for it (by first placing the tech in your side of
    the deal, then asking what they're willing to pay for it). Once that is 
    done, then try increasing the deal. So long as they're willing to buy it,
    the deal is good.

      Tip:  Selling your excess techs is a neat alternative to having a tax
            rate. Consider, if you set your Science to 100%, you make no money,
            right? However, you should be creating new techs faster than the
            other Civs. So, sell out your excess techs for cash. Then use that
            cash to create new techs. Repeat.

            Remember that you can't research tech faster than 4 turns per tech.
            Try lowering the science rate, if you want. You may find that your
            science researches no faster at 100% than 40%. (see the "Science"
            section below for more details)

            Also, try to sell your techs to ALL the Civs out there (unless you
            plan to go to war with them, or think they might attack you),
            starting with the richest and going to the poorest.

6. Dealing with Corruption

7. Science

  Early in the game you want as much science as possible. In fact, the first
  thing you do when you play the game is set the science rate as high as 
  possible. I usually set it as high as I can while still making some money.
  Later when I have money I set it higher to get tech faster.

  The fastest you'll ever gain a tech is in 4 turns. The slowest is 40 turns
  (pre-patch is 32). Therefore if you learn nothing else from this guide, learn
  this: Don't always assume that a high Science Rate will get you the best
  results. Sometimes as low as 20% science will still get you the tech you want
  just as fast as 100%.

    Tip:  Whenever your next advance gets to 1 or 2 turns left, go to the
          Domestic Adviser and play with the tax/science rate. Try to raise
          taxes and see if the advance goes further out. If it is still 1 or 2
          turns away (i.e. it hasn't changed), then keep the new tax rate. This
          way you'll get more money and won't lose any science.

    Note:  I believe the exception to the "4 turn" cap is when researching
           techs from a previous era than the one you are in. For example
           picking up Free Artistry while in the Industrial Era took only 2
           turns, while all Industrial Techs could go no lower than 4.

  Bear in mind that you don't have to research for tech yourself, you could
  just buy it from other Civs. Once you have the new tech, you could then turn
  around and sell it to all the other Civs in the world. You may not be able
  to make a profit on this, however, as the price people are willing to pay
  is reduced when more people know the tech. I suppose everyone likes 
  "exclusive rights."

8. Wonders of the World

  I have attempted to rate (and explain) the wonders, and then sorted them
  according to when they should appear in your game (i.e. ancient wonders are
  listed first, modern ones last).  The rating of wonders goes from A (the
  best) to F (the worst). It is pointless to rate Small Wonders in this manner
  since there is no competition to build them. Once you are able, you can build
  them whenever and wherever you want.

  Rating takes into account several things: Usefulness of Wonder, Length of
  Usefulness, Cost to Build and Culture Rating.

  Wonders are destroyed only if their city is RAZED to the ground.

  Beneath the wonder I list a few quick stats, the cost to build, the base
  culture score (remember that culture increases over time), the requirement(s)
  needed to build and the tech that makes the wonder obsolete.

    Note:  There is no way to increase the speed of construction on a wonder,
           besides increasing the production rate of the city.  You don't get
           the shields back when you disband a unit, and cutting down a forest
           won't get you the 10 extra shields either.

           Leaders can instantly finish wonders for you.

    Tip:  Keep in mind that you cannot switch production from a City 
          Improvement to a Wonder, but you CAN switch from one wonder to 
          another. Also, you can switch production from the Palace to a Wonder. 
          So, if you have no wonders to build, currently, but know that a good 
          wonder is just around the bend, have one of your cities (not your 
          capitol, for obvious reasons) start on the Palace. When you get the 
          new Tech and can build the new Wonder, switch production.

    Tip:  In addition to the above strategy, I'd also do this:  When you are
          building a less-than-stellar wonder, and a better one comes along,
          switch production to the better wonder. Why build a Lighthouse, when
          you can build Copernicus?

  Here are the ratings:

    A - Don't miss this wonder!
    B - Try not to miss this, but don't worry if you do.
    C - Get it if you have nothing better to do.
    D - Get ONLY if you're bored.
    F - Probably should skip this one.

Large Wonders:


    The Colossus - B - Produces one extra COMMERCE in all squares that produce
                       COMMERCE. Thus, a size 6 city with a Colossus would
      Cost: 200        theoretically produce 7 more commerce than before. A
      Culture: 3       size 12 would produce 13 more, etc. This effect is nice
      Req: Bronze Wrk  by itself, especially at the beginning of the game when
      Obs: Flight      you need bonuses to research. Combine it with Libraries,
                       Marketplaces and so forth and the bonuses start to add

                       To really get the effects from it, you need to wait and
                       build Copernicus and Newton in the same city. With a
                       library and a University the bonus becomes incredible.
                       By my inexpert calculations you can get over 100 extra
                       science points by having the Colossus in this situation.

                       Colossus is rated a B because its effects span the
                       better portion of 3 ages. Downsides are that it effects
                       one city, and it's difficult to build wonders at the
                       start of the game.

                       Usefulness: C
                       Length:     A
                       Cost:       B
                       Culture:    C

    Great Library - A - Do NOT pass this one up, whatever you do. If you
                       never even use it, simply keeping it out of the hands of
      Cost: 400        your rivals is reason enough. Any tech that is known to
      Culture: 6       any 2 other Civs is automatically given to the owner
      Req: Lit.        of the Great Library.
      Obs: Education
                       This also brings up the Lazy Library strategy to getting
                       new Tech. Once you have the Library, it works for a
                       good long time, getting you all the techs in the world.
                       So, just sit back, relax and wait for Techs to come to
                       you. This is where the Lazy Library part comes in...
                       drop your research rate to nothing and let the other
                       Civs do your research for you. You won't get the
                       latest and greatest techs, but you will eventually
                       get them.

                       The Great Library's Usefulness makes up for its other
                       deficiencies, such as its high cost and fairly short

                       Usefulness: A
                       Length:     C
                       Cost:       C
                       Culture:    A

    Pyramids     - B - The Pyramids are a decent wonder, made better by the
                       fact that they never go obsolete. For every city on the
      Cost: 400        same continent as the Pyramids, it gives them a free
      Culture: 4       Granary. Granaries work to double the population growth
      Req: Masonry     by halving the food requirements for the city to grow.
      Obs: Never       Getting free Granaries in every city is quite the
                       bonus as Granaries have a cost of 60 shields and a
                       maintenance of 1. So, with a one time cost of 400 
                       shields, you save every future city 60 shields and your
                       empire 1 gold. The Pyramids "pay for themselves" after
                       only 7 cities.

                       That said, if you miss building the Pyramids, it's a
                       bummer, but isn't the end of the world.

                       Usefulness: B
                       Length:     A
                       Cost:       C
                       Culture:    B

    Great Lighthouse - D - The Great Lighthouse is not terribly useful,
                       especially on Pangaea and Continent maps. However, on
      Cost: 400        Archipeligo and other island intensive maps, up its
      Culture: 2       grade to a C. The Lighthouse allows your ships to
      Req: Map Making  leave the coast and enter the "sea" squares. You still
      Obs: Magnet.     can't safely travel on the "ocean" squares, however.
                       Also has the bonus effect of +1 movement for your ships.

                       Why do I think the Lighthouse is an F? First there is
                       the high cost to build. Instead of wasting time building
                       the lighthouse, you could be building more settlings,
                       armies, workers, etc. Its two main powers go from
                       useless to next to useless (unless you are on an island
                       intensive map); gaining access to sea squares
                       essentially only lets your ships go out one extra
                       square from land. The extra naval movement is nice, but
                       hardly necessary.

                       Usefulness: D
                       Length:     C
                       Cost:       C
                       Culture:    D

    Great Wall   - C - The Great Wall has 2 major effects, it doubles your
                       combat strength versus barbarians (it doesn't specify
      Cost: 200        whether you gain this bonus to offense, defense or
      Culture: 2       both) and also doubles the effect of city walls. Since
      Req: Constr.     city walls vanish when your cities grow above 6
      Obs: Metallurgy  population points, that isn't as useful as it appears.
                       As for its primary power, that against barbarians,
                       that too isn't too useful since barbarians die pretty
                       easily as it is.

                       Usefulness: C
                       Length:     C
                       Cost:       B
                       Culture:    D

    Hanging Gardens - B - The Hanging Gardens is a neat wonder, and are even
                       better the harder your difficulty level is. The Gardens
      Cost: 300        make 3 unhappy people content in the city that built it,
      Culture: 4       as well as 1 unhappy person per city in the rest of your
      Req: Pottery     empire.
      Obs: Steam P.
                       Consider the alternative to making unhappy people into
                       contented people, raising the "luxury" rate to 10-20%,
                       and you can easily see why this Wonder is useful.

                       Usefulness: B
                       Length:     B
                       Cost:       B
                       Culture:    B

    Oracle       - C - The Oracle doubles the effect of your temples, allowing
                       them to make 2 citizens content, rather than the usual
      Cost: 300        one.
      Culture: 4
      Req: Mysticism   The trouble with the Oracle is that it works just like
      Obs: Theology    the Hanging Gardens, but just a little worse. For
                       starters, it only works if your cities already have a
                       temple, the Gardens work on any city. Although the
                       cost and culture are about the same, the Oracle has a
                       shorter length of time as it is tied to Theology,
                       which you get an entire Age earlier.

                       Usefulness: B
                       Length:     D
                       Cost:       B
                       Culture:    B


    Adam Smith's Trade Co. - C - Not nearly as useful as its Civ II version,
                       this Adam Smith's only pays for city improvements that
      Cost: 600        deal with trade: Marketplace, Bank and Harbor. In a
      Culture: 3       city that has all three that is a bonus of 3 gold,
      Req: Economics   otherwise it is just a bonus of 2 gold per city per
      Obs: Never       turn.

                       The economics of this unit are OK, but they do add up
                       rapidly. Even in a modest empire of 10 cities, that is
                       20 gold saved per turn. This wonder never expires 
                       either, which is nice. If it didn't come late in the
                       middle ages, it would be a really useful wonder.

                       Usefulness: B
                       Length:     B
                       Cost:       D
                       Culture:    C

    Copernicus Observatory - A - Research is king in Civ III, and wonders that
                       increase research are wonderful. Copernicus has the same
      Cost: 400        effect as another later wonder, Newton's University, but
      Culture: 4       since it comes sooner it is rated higher. Copernicus
      Req: Astronomy   doubles the science rate in one city, preferably the
      Obs: Never       city that has the Colossus for a double bonus. Then
                       later add the Newton's University to this city for a
                       very good bonus, indeed. Also, don't skimp out on
                       Libraries and Universities just to build Wonders, or
                       you're science rate won't be what it could be.

                       Usefulness: A
                       Length:     B
                       Cost:       B
                       Culture:    B

    JS Bach's Cathedral - B - JS Bach makes war within a Democracy possible.
                       JS Bach makes 2 unhappy citizens in every one of your
      Cost: 600        cities on the continent content. In other words, it
      Culture: 6       works like the Hanging Gardens x2. As mentioned above
      Req: Music Th.   its effect is most appreciated during War Weariness
      Obs: Never       when your normally happy people are upset with your
                       prolonged military campaigns.

                       Bach has 2 main drawbacks: 1, it only works on one
                       continent, so if you are on islands it won't work so
                       well; and 2, it only makes unhappy people content. If
                       you don't have any unhappy people, it won't do anything.
                       (Think Regent difficulty and lower, their happiness is
                       greater than in the more difficult levels) Bach is much
                       more useful in Monarch or higher, but it is still useful
                       in all levels.

                       Usefulness: B
                       Length:     B
                       Cost:       C
                       Culture:    A

    Leonardo's Workshop - F - Don't get this one, unless you have a city with
                       high production and nothing else to build. Or you just
      Cost: 600        NEED to have all the wonders. In Civ II Leonardo was a
      Culture: 2       must-have, in Civ III, avoid it. What it does now is
      Req: Invention   to reduce the cost to Upgrade units in barracks.
      Obs: Never       However, it is usually better to disband old units and
                       build new units elsewhere.  Add to that a high cost,
                       low culture and a middling length and you get one crappy

                       Usefulness: F
                       Length:     C
                       Cost:       C
                       Culture:    D

    Magellan's Great Voyage - C - Magellan is certainly better than the 
                       lighthouse, if only because it will last until the end
      Cost: 400        of the game, however, only build it if you have no
      Culture: 3       better wonders to build.
      Req: Magnetism
      Obs: Never       Usefulness: C
                       Length:     C
                       Cost:       B
                       Culture:    C

    Newton's University - B - The same arguments apply here as they did to
                       Copernicus: Science is King! The Newton's University
      Cost: 400        gets some demerits for coming later than Copernicus,
      Culture: 6       even though they are essentially the same wonder.
      Req: Gravity
      Obs: Never       That said, if you can only build ONE of the 2, build
                       Newton. Why? Better Culture.

                       Usefulness: A
                       Length:     C
                       Cost:       B
                       Culture:    A

    Shakespeare's Theater - D - Shakespeare's primary effect, making 8 unhappy
                       people into content people is next to useless. No one
      Cost: 400        city needs that type of contentment, and if one does,
      Culture: 8       then the rest of your empire is likely falling apart!
      Req: F Artistry  That said, it does produce the BEST culture bonus in
      Obs: Never       the game, and if culture is your strategy to victory,
                       you may want this one anyway.

                       One interesting sidenote, I usually get the tech Free
                       Artistry AFTER going to the Industrial Age, which means
                       that I have much higher production than normal and can
                       produce Shakespeare at a record pace.

                       Usefulness: F
                       Length:     C
                       Cost:       B
                       Culture:    A

    Sun Tzu's Art of War - B - Or as it is more popularly known, "A Barracks in
                       Every City." And unlike in Civ II, this Sun Tzu never
      Cost: 600        goes out of style. This is a Must Have for any
      Culture: 2       militaristic Civ, or anyone who wants to save ONE gold
      Req: Feudalism   for every city with a barracks. And hey, having one less
      Obs: Never       thing to build means that you can build more things
                       quicker! That's 40 production shields that can go to
                       building that temple.

                       The major downside is that it only gives free barracks
                       to cities on the same continent. If you are on a world
                       with many islands, this wonder isn't so useful.

                       Usefulness: A (C if you're on Islands)
                       Length:     C
                       Cost:       C
                       Culture:    C


    Hoover Dam   - B - The Hoover Dam gives every one of your cities on the
                       continent a FREE Hydro Plant (240 production shields, 3
      Cost: 800        gold maintenance). As you can see by the stats of the
      Culture: 2       Hydro Plant, this is quite the good wonder. Consider
      Req: Electronic  this, Hydro Plants produce NO pollution, but can only
      Obs: Never       be built in cities with access to a river. But with the
                       Hoover Dam, ALL your cities on the continent get a Hydro
                       Plant, not just ones with rivers.

                       It takes only THREE cities getting this effect to make
                       it cost-effective.

                       Usefulness: A
                       Length:     C
                       Cost:       A (steep cost to build, but actually saves
                                      production and money)
                       Culture:    C

    United Nations - C - Without the United Nations in hand, the Diplomatic
                       Victory condition will never be reached. Get it if you
      Cost: 1000       want to win that way (or just to prevent the CPU from
      Culture: 2       doing the same).
      Req: Fission
      Obs: Never       Usefulness: B
                       Length:     C
                       Cost:       D
                       Culture:    C

    Theory of Evolution - B - This was an "A" wonder back in Civ II but saw its
                       effects diminished in Civ III. It still gives out 2
      Cost: 600        free techs, but this time these are "Optional" techs.
      Culture: 3       By optional I mean the techs that are not required to
      Req: Scientific  advance from one age to the next.  These are:
      Obs: n/a           Ancient:     Horesback Riding
                         Medieval:    Chivalry
                                      Free Artistry
                                      Military Tradition
                                      Music Theory
                                      Printing Press
                         Industrial:  Advanced Flight
                                      Amphibious Warfare

                       Still, free tech is free tech... two less things you
                       have to research yourself.

                       Usefulness: B
                       Length:     n/a (it's an instant effect)
                       Cost:       B
                       Culture:    C

    Universal Suffrage - B - The only Wonder that deals with War Weariness
                       head-on. Combine this with Police Stations in every
      Cost: 800        city and you get some nice reductions on War Weariness.
      Culture: 4       This wonder is what makes war BEARABLE in Democracy.
      Req: Industr.    Without it, I wouldn't even attack anyone. (Although
      Obs: Never       you COULD just manipulate events until the enemy Civ
                       declared war on YOU... that doesn't create War

                       That said, if you aren't a democracy this isn't as
                       critical... Even a Republic could go without it. It has
                       War Weariness but nowhere near as much as a Democracy.
                       And the other three governments don't even HAVE War

                       Usefulness: A
                       Length:     C
                       Cost:       C
                       Culture:    B


    Cure for Cancer - C - Makes one unhappy citizen in each city content.
                       Similar effect to JS Bach, but counts for EVERY city,
      Cost: 1000       not just the ones on the same continent. The 2 wonders
      Culture: 3       do stack (3 total unhappy to content), so if you already
      Req: Genetics    have JS Bach, then rate this a "B". Also, if you have
      Obs: Never       cities on many islands rate this a "B".

                       However, at the time you get this, your cities should be
                       fairly stable making this wonder a nice addition, but
                       hardly necessary.

                       Usefulness: C
                       Length:     D
                       Cost:       D
                       Culture:    C

    Longevity    - F - Another that falls under the too-late category. If you
                       could do this back in the middle ages, or even the
      Cost: 1000       industrial ages this would work. However, getting it in
      Culture: 3       the MODERN era makes it useless. Why? By that point the
      Req: Genetics    entire world should be populated, even on a Huge map.
      Obs: Never       If the world is populated completely, the last thing you
                       need is doubled population growth.

                       Get this one only if you want the +3 culture.

                       Usefulness: F
                       Length:     D
                       Cost:       D
                       Culture:    C

    SETI Program - D - Back in Civ II this was another "A" wonder, now it's
                       just a "D". SETI now just doubles scientific research
      Cost: 1000       in a city. This is all well and good, but it comes so
      Culture: 3       late in the game that most of the research is already
      Req: Computers   DONE. What's even left? Besides, by this point in the
      Obs: Never       game your research rate might be maxing out at 50% (or
                       even 40-30 or 20%), that is, having research set at 50%
                       produces tech at the same rate as 100%. At best SETI
                       will allow you to raise the tax rate.

                       For best effect, put SETI in the same city as Copernicus
                       and Newton.

                       Usefulness: C
                       Length:     F
                       Cost:       D
                       Culture:    C

    Manhattan Project - F - Avoid nuclear missiles, they're nothing but
                       trouble. Any nuclear strike will probably mess up the
      Cost: 800        planet forever (global warming) and certainly won't
      Culture: 2       win you any friends. Also, when this wonder is built,
      Req: Fission     EVERYONE gets access to nuclear weapons... if they have
      Obs: Never       the tech for it. So, try to let this one go... the CPU
                       may build it later, but you'll get access to its effects
                       too, no reason to build this one.

                       Usefulness: F
                       Length:     F
                       Cost:       C
                       Culture:    D

Small Wonders:


    Forbidden Palace - A - The most major force in corruption-reduction is your
                       Palace, and the Forbidden Palace mirrors that nicely.
      Cost: 300        The idea is to divide your empire in 2 halves. In the
      Culture: 2       center of one half, place the Palace, in the center of
      Req: Special     the other place the Forbidden Palace. Thus, corruption
      Obs: Never       is kept as low as possible.

                       You get the option to build the Forbidden Palace based
                       on the number of cities you have, and the type of map
                       you are on. The larger the map, the more cities it takes
                       before you can build it.

                       Placing the Forbidden Palace for BEST effect is a bit
                       of a trick. You may want to wait until your empire is
                       finished expanding. Or at least until you know where
                       your expansion will finish.

                         Tip:  Still expanding the empire and want to wait
                               until you KNOW where to place the Forbidden
                               Palace? Try this: Near where your Palace is,
                               in the middle of the most cities, build the
                               Forbidden Palace. Then later in the game when
                               you want, build the Palace out in another
                               place in the empire. If you need to, you can
                               always move the Palace later, but you can't
                               move the Forbidden Palace once placed.

                       Usefulness: A
                       Length:     A
                       Cost:       B
                       Culture:    D

    Heroic Epic  - B - The Heroic Epic can be built only AFTER you have had a
                       Victorious Army in the field. Remember that an army is
      Cost: 200        built after you get a Great Leader, send it to a city,
      Culture: 4       and then add units to it.
      Req: Special
      Obs: Never       The Heroic Epic's primary purpose, increasing the odds
                       of Great Leaders appearing is good (better if you are
                       already a Militaristic Civ), but its best benefit is
                       the culture benefit. It starts out as a modest 4
                       culture, but since you build it so early its culture
                       will double out to 8, the same culture as the
                       Shakespeare's Theater. (which likely won't double in ITS
                       culture rating)

                       Getting more Leaders is wonderful (heh) as it allows you
                       to instantly build any Wonder you want. In fact, after
                       you use your first Leader to build an army to build
                       the Heroic Epic, all future Leaders should Hurry 
                       Wonders. (You can produce more armies later when you get
                       the Military Academy)

                       Usefulness: C (B if you are militaristic)
                       Length:     A
                       Cost:       A
                       Culture:    A


    Military Academy - B - Allows the construction of armies (which cost 400
                       shields to produce). Armies, while not invinceable, are
      Cost: 400        still incredibly useful. You won't win every battle with
      Culture: 1       an army (although I've never lost one), but they are
      Req: Mil. Trad.  still very strong. In fact, the CPU AI doesn't like to
           Special     attack a full-strength (or even half-strength) armies,
      Obs: Never       even if they could win. This allows you to move in
                       all sorts of other units with your Armies, and they'll
                       all be perfectly safe.

                       Like the Heroic Epic, the Military Academy requires that
                       you have had a Victorious Army (and the Military 
                       Tradition tech).

                       Usefulness: B
                       Length:     B
                       Cost:       B
                       Culture:    F

    Wall Street  - A - Gives a 5% interest return on your treasury. This
                       interest caps out at a max return of 50 gold per turn,
      Cost: 400        which you would get with an treasury of 1000 gold.
      Culture: 2       Essentially for every 20 gold you have in your inventory
      Req: 5 Banks     you make another 1 gold in interest.
      Obs: Never
                       The requirement here is that you must have 5 banks built
                       in your empire.

                       Usefulness: A
                       Length:     B
                       Cost:       B
                       Culture:    D


    Battlefield Medicine - C - A nice little wonder (hence it being a Small
                       Wonder) that allows your units to Heal while still in
      Cost: 500        a foreign culture area. Useful, but not necessary.
      Culture: 1
      Req: 5 Hosp.     Usefulness: C
      Obs: Never       Length:     C
                       Cost:       C
                       Culture:    F

    Intelligence Agency - B - The Intelligence Agency allows you to open
                       up some Espionage on your enemies (and your friends).
      Cost: 400        Once built, you need to plant a spy in the enemy
      Culture: 1       capitol, which you do by double-clicking the Agency
      Req: Espionage   icon attached to the city that built it. (Much the same
      Obs: Never       way your Embassy Icon is attached to your Capitol)
                       Not sure what affects the success of whether your spy
                       gets planted, but it might deal with how suspicious the
                       other Civ is of you. The better their mood is towards
                       you, the better success you should have.

                       Once inside, your Spy can pull off some missions:

                         Propaganda - same effect as an enemy city joining out
                                      of awe for your culture, you get a free
                                      enemy city.
                         Steal Plans - Shows you all the troops your enemy has,
                                      check your Military Adviser
                         Sabotage -   Have your spy go destroy an improvement
                         Disease -    Have your spy disease the population of
                                      a city, killing its people
                         Steal World Map
                         Expose Spy - Your spy goes on Counterintelligence and
                                      searches your capitol for an enemy spy.

                       Negatives? Other Civs really hate it when you spy on
                       them and could declare war on you, or just plain hate
                       you forever.

                       Usefulness: B
                       Length:     C
                       Cost:       B
                       Culture:    F

    Iron Works   - A - One of the best wonders, period. Better than most of the
                       "Great" wonders, in fact. The Iron Works DOUBLES the
      Cost: 300        production in a city. Since any city that CAN build it
      Culture: 2       (one with both Coal and Iron) would have high production
      Req: Iron&Coal   anyway, their production AFTERWORDS will be phenomenal.
      Obs: Never       And if built before Industrialization is discovered, the
                       pollution effects are far less.

                       The trick is, IF you can even build this one. Getting
                       Coal and Iron in the same city is tricky... because
                       you won't see Coal at ALL until you get Steam Power.
                       So, chances are, even if it is POSSIBLE to get a city
                       with both, you might end out splitting the resources
                       between 2 nearby cities without realizing it. But if you
                       do get it... wow!

                       Usefulness: A
                       Length:     C
                       Cost:       A
                       Culture:    D

    The Pentagon - C - Nice to have, but not necessary. The Pentagon allows 
                       your armies to add an extra unit, bringing them up to
      Cost: 400        4 units total. This gives your armies a maximum Hit
      Culture: 1       Point of 20. Not many units out there could survive 20
      Req: Special     hit points of army attacking them. Give this one a "B"
      Obs: Never       if you're a militaristic Civ.

                       Similar to the other "army" wonders, the Pentagon
                       requires that you have 3 armies in the field. I would
                       recommend building the armies with the Military Academy
                       and NOT with Leaders. Only one leader should build an
                       army, the rest are for Wonders.

                       Usefulness: B
                       Length:     C
                       Cost:       B
                       Culture:    F


    Apollo Program - C - Allows the Space Race victory condition. You can't
                       build spaceship parts without it. If that's your goal,
      Cost: 400        then this gets an "A", otherwise it's a "C".
      Culture: 2
      Req: Space Fl.   Usefulness: C
      Obs: Never       Length:     D
                       Cost:       A
                       Culture:    D

    Strategic Missile Defense - C - Only necessary if someone built the
                       Manhattan Project, but if it's necessary, then by all
      Cost: 500        means build it before someone Nukes you. A 75% chance
      Culture: 1       to survive a nuclear attack is better than your current
      Req: Int. Def.   0% chance!
      Obs: Never       In addition to the tech, Integrated Defense, you must
                       also have built 5 SAM batteries.

                       Usefulness: B
                       Length:     D
                       Cost:       B
                       Culture:    F

9. War, What is it Good For?

  Prelude to war:  If at all possible, try to get your enemy's map before you
  declare war on them. Why? So you can seek and destroy their cities. The trick
  is to get their map without giving them anything of value. You don't want to
  give them YOUR map, for example, or they might flank your entire empire and
  sack your weakest cities (which is what you want to be doing, by the way).
  Usually the best thing to trade out is GOLD to get their TERRITORY MAP (world
  map is nicer, but is usually more than twice as difficult to get). If you're
  attacking soon, trade on a PER TURN basis... if you declare war, the payments

    Tip:  Can't get their map? Try finding another Civ that is willing to give
          you their WORLD MAP. Very often you will get your enemy's map with 

          I can't state this enough... DON'T TRADE OUT YOUR OWN MAP! Ever! It's
          bad tactically in the beginning of the game as it reveals your
          weaknesses, and it's bad late in the game as it shows other Civs 
          where they can build cities (usually in the small "culture holes" 
          between YOUR cities).

  War amounts to finding an advantage, exploiting it, then forcing a settlement
  in your favor. Well, that's the basic idea, anyway, pulling it off is a
  trifle more difficult than that.

  First you find an advantage. This is the trickiest part. What I mean by an
  advantage is any possible way for you to defeat your enemy. This could be
  superior units, good positions, or just good tactics. For example, while
  playing the Romans, I used their special unit, the Legionnary, to great 
  effect in my war on the English. I started that war when I realized that I 
  had a far superior unit to anything that they could throw at me. Using 
  nothing but Legions I devastated the English to the point that the CPU had to 
  restart them elsewhere on the map. Another way to get the advantage on the 
  enemy is to get into a good position, then attack. A quick example would be 
  to find a large enemy city, fortify a defensive unit up on a nearby mountain 
  (for defense) and with offensive units attack. If you can take (or destroy) a 
  large city, you have damaged them far more than if you pick off a few of
  their outlaying cities. Finally there is good tactics. For one thing, the 
  frontline of the war should ALWAYS be near their cities, not yours. If the 
  fighting is close to your empire you will start to lose cities. You can't 
  always help this, especially if you didn't start the war.

  Once you've found your advantage, time to exploit it. If you have a superior
  unit and can crush their cities easily, don't stop. Keep going until your
  advantage disappears, or your enemy does.

    Tip:  Can't defeat any enemy units?  Try pillaging their landscape. It's
          quick, easy and effective. I always aim at their roadways first. Why?
          You can't use enemy roads (those within the culture area of an enemy
          Civ), and they can, which allows them to move forces at yours 
          quicker. Of course, destroying their mines and farmlands also weakens 
          their cities. Horsemen (and by extension, Knights and Cavalry) are 
          great at this as their extra movement allows them to move to a square 
          then pillage.

  Keep throwing units at the enemy until they are defeated.

    Note:  So, what are you going to do with all the workers you've been 
           capturing? Keep them? Disband them? (The CPU does this one, possibly
           to prevent you from recapturing them, they'll even disband their
           own workers that they recaptured back from you.) If you are an
           industrious Civ, and the captured workers are NOT industrious, I'd
           just disband them where they are. Industrious workers work twice as
           hard, and this bonus does not extend to captured workers. Also, if
           you send them to Join your cities, they'll be much more upset if you
           are at War with the Civ they came from. For example, capture a Zulu
           worker, put him in your city, and continue to attack, and he'll be

    Note:  So, do you Raze cities when you capture them, or do you keep them?
           Couple of things to keep in mind. First, all the improvements are
           destroyed when you take the city. For large cities (6 population or
           more) this can be a real problem as there is no temple/colloseum
           to placate them. Second, there is a resistance to put down, and 
           until it is, you can't Hurry production to build anything. So, say
           you capture a size 9 city, it gets 4 resistors. Therefore if you put
           in enough troops to quell the rebellion, the resistance might end in
           4 turns. Then you have a VERY unhappy city (especially if you are
           still at war with their country) and will probably need to stop them
           from working the field, causing starvation. Another disadvantage of
           taking cities versus razing them is that the city is placed where
           the other Civ wanted it, not where you wanted it. So, it may be too
           close to your other cities, or built just one square away from a
           Cow resource (+4 food and +1 shield). Finally captured cities lose
           their acquired Culture, so a city that had 100 culture, resets back
           to zero.

           Usually I just raze the city. Feel bad about it? Don't! You aren't
           actually slaughtering the city, just burning it to the ground. Its
           population is converted to workers (not on a one-to-one ratio, a
           city of 9 might give you 3 workers) and the city is gone. Once that
           is taken care of, send in your own Settler (with strong military
           defense, of course) and build your own city where you want it.

           Diplomatic consequences to this are minimal. The only Civ that 
           REALLY cared about the city is probably already as mad at you as
           they're gonna get.

  Of course, one can't always attack until their nation is destroyed, there are
  other factors at play. First, if you are a Republic/Democracy, there is War
  Weariness to contend with. Second, they might have cities you don't know 
  about (and therefore can't find). This brings us to my final point, which is
  to know when to sign a Peace Treaty and end the war. For starters, you need 
  the enemy Civ to talk to you, which they might not even do for the first few 
  turns of the war. As long as they ignore your Diplomacy Requests, the war 
  must go on.

    Tip:  Never attack a superior opponent. Sounds obvious, but you might be
          tempted to try it if you got enough units by one of their cities. 
          Your idea might be to take the city, then sue for peace, however, 
          your enemy will probably just ignore you and sack your cities.

          The exception to this rule is if the enemy Civ is far away from your
          empire. That way you can attack them, and they won't be able to get
          to your empire for quite a few turns.

    Tip:  Don't want to attack a superior opponent, but how about annoying 
          them? After they build a new city, but before the culture expands, 
          consider pillaging any roads leading from this new city back to their 
          empire. They can't get mad at you because the roads are outside of 
          their culture. Makes for a lot of fun if you can find mines and 
          irrigations out where you can freely pillage. (This happens more 
          often when cities have been destroyed, then later rebuilt)

  OK, this is all well and good, you say, but what do you do if you are 
  attacked? Well let's go back a ways, to War Prevention. Civs don't generally 
  attack other Civs with superior militaries. Don't want to get attacked? Then 
  build units. Another way to avoid conflict is to Trade with other Civs. If 
  you provide them with Incense and Spice, then when they attack you, each of 
  their cities would lose 2 happy people, possibly throwing those cities into 
  disorder. Do they want that? Probably not. Then again, maybe they're sick of 
  trading for the resource and want to simply take it from you.

    Tip:  Don't trade out military resources to possible enemy Civs. (Iron,
          Horses, Saltpeter, etc.)  Feel free to trade to Civs that aren't 
          close enough to attack you, however.

9.1  The Combat Engine Demystified!

  Ever wonder why your Tank just lost to a Swordsman? Ever feel blue that your
  Infantry just got wiped off his mountain fortress by a Musketman? Well, I
  can't help that, what I can do is explain how it happened.

  In past Civ games, veteran status affected their abilities. This is no more,
  now Veteran/Elite status only changes the number of "hit points" that unit

  Hit Points:

    Conscript  2  (found only when "goodie" huts give you a unit)
    Regular    3  (the default level)
    Veteran    4  (with barracks)
    Elite      5

  Units advance in "level" by winning battles, either by attacking or getting
  attacked. So long as they win, they have a chance of gaining a level. Elite
  units are ONLY possible when a Veteran unit wins a battle, you cannot build
  Elite units.  When Elite units win a battle, there is a chance that a Great
  Leader will appear.

    Note:  Militaristic Civ's units gain levels more often and have more Great
           Leaders appear.

  In a battle, the two fighting units will attack each other until one is dead.
  These battles take place in rounds, where each round one of the combatants
  will lose a HP. Who loses the HP depends on the attack strength of the
  offensive unit and the defense strength of the defender. Add these numbers
  together, then divide your attacker's strength by the new number to find out
  how likely he is to win a round.

                             Offensive Unit's Attack Strength
  Round % =   ----------------------------------------------------------------
              (Offensive Unit's Attack Strength + Defender's Defense Strength)

  Thus, a Swordsman attacking a Warrior has a 75% chance to win each round.
  (75% = 3 (Swordsman) / (3 + 1 (Warrior)))  In such a way, every unit has a
  chance to win a round.  And although unlikely, even the worst unit could win
  EVERY round. From our previous situation, the Warrior had a 25% to win each
  round. Not too bad for a unit with 1 defense.

    Note:  Want to save before battle, then reload if it goes poorly for you?
           Won't work (at least, not that easily) as all the "random" battle
           results are predetermined. (I believe that this is called "seeding")
           So, if your Swordsman dies at the hands of the Warrior, reloading
           and attacking again won't change a thing, he'll die in exactly the
           same way.  In fact, if you attack with a similar unit (say, another
           Veteran Swordsman) to another similar unit (another Warrior) you'll
           also lose.

           To get out of the Seeded results, you need to find a different
           battle (say, an Elite Horseman attacking a Warrior somewhere else)
           or to save, quite and restart the game entirely.

    Note:  Difficulty Level does NOT affect the probability of winning in 

    Note:  Non-combat units cannot defend themselves, they simply get captured
           or destroyed. Naval units caught in port count as non-combat units
           and are immediately sunk.

    Note:  There does not APPEAR to be a "Hasty" attack penalty. This penalty
           was applied in previous games when a unit attacked with less than
           one full movement point left. (Such as a Musketman walking down a
           road 2 squares then attacking) This resulted in an attack penalty.
           However, this doesn't seem to be the case in Civ III.

Defensive Bonuses:

  Most Terrain             --  10% defense bonus
  Attacking Across a River --  25%
  Forest/Jungle            --  25%
  Unit is Fortified        --  25%
  Hills                    --  50%
  Unit in Fortress         --  50%
  Unit in Walled Town      --  50%
  Unit in City (7-12 pop)  --  50%
  Unit in Metropolis (12+) -- 100%
  Mountains                -- 100%

  Defensive bonuses are added together before being applied. A unit fortified
  on a fortressed mountain would get 175% bonus (25% + 50% + 100%), nearly
  tripling their defense.

  So, a Musketman on a hill would have a base Defense of 4, but with the
  defensive Hill bonus, would have a defense of 6.  Were he fortified his
  defense would be 7.  Add in a fortress and that leaps up to 9.

Attacks of Opportunity:

  Using a D&D term here, but it fits. In Civ III there exists the concept of a
  "free shot" that a unit can take on another unit when it moves away.  Units
  within a fortress automatically get this, as do most Ranged attack units
  (by which I mean Archers, Musketmen, Riflemen, etc.) and Fast attack units
  (Horsemen, Knights, Cavalry).  A free shot gives the unit a chance (based on
  their normal battle roll) to do 1 HP of damage to the fleeing unit.

  Your unit gets ONE free shot per turn no matter how many units move by. So,
  if 8 musketmen walk by your Cavalry, he'll get a shot at the first one, but
  none at the remaining 7.


  Available only to "fast" units (movement of 2 or more).  If a fast unit is
  losing a battle to a non-fast unit, (i.e. he is reduced to 1 HP), he will
  withdraw to a nearby square. Fast units will retreat from ANY battle, either
  on attack or defense. Remember you cannot withdraw from another fast unit
  (they are fast enough to pursue). Also, your unit will NOT withdraw at 1 HP
  IF his opponent is also down to 1 HP. Why? I guess that it becomes do-or-die


  Many units have a bombardment rating (catapults, artillery, naval vessels,
  bombers, etc.). Bombardment does not work like a normal attack in that a
  combat is not initiated. What it does is attempt to destroy the other unit.
  All the stats for hitting appear to be the same, so an artillery with its
  12 bombard value would have a 75% to hit a musketman. If the bombardment
  succeeds, the attacked unit loses HP. Bombardment units have a Rate of Fire
  involved as well. Thus, the artillery gets 2 attacks per shot, if both hit,
  the target loses 2 HP.

    Note:  Artillery, Catapults and other land bombard units can be captured,
           but only if the capturing Civ has the tech sufficient to build
           the unit on their own.

  You can also bombard cities (either to damage their defending units, or to
  destroy its population/improvements) and terrain tiles (which acts like the
  PILLAGE function).

10. Winning the Game

Conquest Victory

  There are 540 turns in the game, 126 occuring in the BC era.

  4000 BC to 2750 BC  -  25 turns, 50 years per turn
  2710 BC to 1750 BC  -  25 turns, 40 years
  1725 BC to  750 BC  -  40 turns, 25 years
   730 BC to  250 BC  -  50 turns, 20 years
   260 BC to 1250 AD  - 100 turns, 10 years
  1255 AD to 1750 AD  - 100 turns,  5 years
  1752 AD to 1950 AD  - 100 turns,  2 years
  1951 AD to 2050 AD  - 100 turns,  1 year per turn

  Your final score of a Conquest game (that is, you killed all your opponents)
  is your normal score, plus a special Conquest bonus. (Consider all BC dates
  to be negative)

  Conquest bonus = (2050 - Date) * Difficulty Modifier

    Cheiftain - 1
    Warlord   - 2
    Regent    - 3
    Monarch   - 4
    Emporer   - 5
    Deity     - 6

Cultural Victory

Diplomatic Victory

Out-Of-Time Victory (Generic Score Victory)

Space-Race Victory

11. Extra City Names

12. A Brief History of Each Civ (Or, Why This Civ Is In The Game)

  There is always some controversy as to why this or that Civ was or was not
  included in the game. Most people wonder why the Americans are included, when
  they have so little history. After all, the game starts in 4000 BC, while
  there were no Americans around. And where are the Mongolians? The Hittites?
  Sumerians? Spanish? Dutch? Portuguese? Many of these had claims to world
  power at one point or another. Well, I can't explain why some cultures
  didn't make the cut, but I can try to explain why those that are in the game

  This is tricky for a few reasons:  One, the land was always there, and Two,
  it was always occupied by someone. Britain was lived on by Celts for years
  before the Romans arrived, while America was filled with native peoples
  spanning back millennia. What I look at is when the land becomes occupied by
  the "right" culture. For example, when does Britain become full of British?
  Then I look at the peak of each Civ's power. How long were they a world

    Colonies - Virginia Founded 1607 - First time I consider an "American" to
                                       begin to exist, i.e. an Englishman
                                       living in America.
               Stamp Act 1765        - First time the colonies really worked as
                                       a cohesive unit, working together.
                                       Before this, one was a "Virginian" or a
                                       "New Yorker" before an American.
    Independence Declared 1776 (achieved 1783, Treaty of Paris)
                                     - America managed to win the war while
                                       winning only a small number of the
                                       battles (and Saratoga was won mostly
                                       due to British fatigue).
                                     - Also, French involvment in the
                                       revolution influenced their own French
                                       revolution just a few years later.
    USA - Constitution 1789-90       - United States of America officially
    Wars - Britain 1812              - USA wins this war mostly by not losing.
                                       Andrew Jackson wins a battle at New
                                       Orleans... weeks after the war ended.
         - Mexico 1846               - In order to gain California and Texas,
                                       a little war was created. Although
                                       technically started by a Mexican attack,
                                       the US was mostly responsible for
                                       starting the war.
         - Civil War 1861            - Lincoln's Presidency meant war as the
                                       southern states seceded. At points the
                                       war was desperate enough that the
                                       western states threatened to secede as
         - Spanish War 1898          - The US takes on its first European power
                                       and wins in spades. Sure, Spain was on
                                       the decline, but a win is a win. With
                                       the victory, the US takes Cuba, Guam,
                                       Hawaii, the Philippines and Puerto Rico.
                                       As per an agreement made before the war,
                                       Cuba is let go. The US fought a bitter
                                       guerilla war in the Philippines for
                                       years before finally letting it go.
         - World War I               - The US enters the war in the final years
                                       and effectively ends the war. Not by
                                       fighting, but by simply adding more
                                       troops such that the Central Powers felt
                                       outnumbered and surrendured.
         - World War II              - Late again to the war, the US fought
                                       Japan almost entirely on its own. The
                                       addition of US troops in Europe was
                                       useful, but more useful were the
                                       supplies it sent to Britain before
                                       entering the war directly.
    Present                          - US is the lone super-power, which seems
                                       to bring more negatives than positives.
                                       The US military can strike at any point
                                       in the world within hours, has nuclear
                                       capabilities that are unsurpassed, and
                                       diplomatic connections with most every
                                       nation on earth. The US has enough world
                                       clout that the United Nations is based
                                       in New York City.
    Total Existence:    394 years (colonies to 2001)
    National Existence: 212 years (constitution to 2001)
    World Power Status: 103 years (Spanish War to 2001)
    Superpower Status:   46 years (World War II to 2001)

    Empire - Rebellion from Tepanecs 1431 - The "Aztec Empire" was an alliance
                                       of 3 cities that threw off the rule of
                                       the Tepanecs who had held power in the
                                       area since the fall of the Mayans many
                                       centuries before.
           - Montezuma I 1440        - Responsible for most of the early
                                       expansion of the empire.
           - Further Expansion 1502  - The empire spread in all directions,
                                       conquering directly (or indirectly
                                       blackmailing) the surrounding peoples.
                                       Since the Aztec Empire was surrounded on
                                       all sides by enemies, it was in a state
                                       of constant warfare. Much of the area
                                       was already developed, and the Aztecs
                                       attempted to control the trade networks
                                       already in existence with some success.
                                       After a successful battle, the enemy
                                       warriors were then sacrificed. To keep
                                       newly conquered areas loyal, citizens
                                       from existing cities were sent out to
                                       populate the new colonies.
           - Tenochtitlan            - At its height, the capitol city held
                                       200,000 citizens, which may have been
                                       as high as 4x that of its nearest rival.
           - The Spanish 1519        - When the Spanish arrived, they found
                                       many allies around the capitol city who
                                       wanted to overthrow the aztecs.
           - The End 1521            - Tenochtitlan fell in 1521, effectively
                                       ending the Aztec domination of the
                                       region, placing all the Mexican peoples
                                       in the control of the spanish.
    Present - Mexico                 - One could argue that Mexico is descended
                                       from the Aztecs (the word Mexico itself
                                       is derived from "Mexica" the Aztec word
                                       for their own nation). However, since it
                                       was controlled by the spanish for so
                                       long, Mexico as it exists today has
                                       little in common with the Aztecs.
    Total Existence:     Unknown (don't know when Tenochtitlan was founded)
    National Existence:  90 years (formation of the empire until conquered by
                                   the Spanish)
    World Power Status:  Never (didn't leave Central America)
    Superpower Status:   Never

    Mesopotamia - 4000 BC            - The Babylonia region (another name for
                                       Mesopotamia) has been occupied for a
                                       long time. We'll simplify by saying that
                                       the Sumerians came first.
                - Hammurabi 1792 BC  - Babylon becomes a major player in the
                                       region under Hammurabi. His empire
                                       didn't really survive his death, but his
                                       Code of Laws and the idea of central
                                       authority lived on.
                - Assyrians          - After the collapse of Babylon, various
                                       other factions assumed power, eventually
                                       it slid to the Assyrians. The Assyrians
                                       held power from 911 BC until 626 BC.
                - Neo-Babylonia 626 BC - A Chaldean took power from Assyria
                                       and founded his own dynasty, called the
                                       Chaldean or Neo-Babylonian. After a
                                       civil war with the Assyrians, Babylon
                                       was on top.
                - Persian Empire 539 BC - Babylon was annexed into the Persian
                                       Empire, which eventually became the
                                       Macedonian Empire (Alexander the Great)
                                       in 323 BC.
    Total Existence:     3461 years (from 4000 BC to the Persian Empire)
    National Existence:  2337 years (not counting the Assyrian regime)
    World Power Status:  Never (part of world powers when conquered, never one
    Superpower Status:   Never

    Prehistory -

                     < < < < < Final Words.... > > > > >

This FAQ was written entirely using the GWD Text Editor:  (shareware)

Spiffy Links:
  GameFAQs               --
  Official Civ III site  --
  Apolyton's Civ Page    --

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                                                          NPC List
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                                   -- Spell List
  All of my FAQs can be found at:

Version History:
  Version 0.4  January 2, 2002  137k

    Everything is new. Many sections are still incomplete at this stage.

This Document is Copyright 2002 by boomer2411
Civilization III is Copyright 2001 by Firaxis/Infogrames

I am not affiliated with Sid Meier, Firaxis, Infogrames or anyone who had
anything to do with the creation of this game.  This FAQ may be posted on any
site so long as NOTHING IS CHANGED and you EMAIL ME telling me that you are
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