BCampbell's Gran Turismo FAQ - Guide for Gran Turismo

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The Big Bad Gran Turismo FAQ v2.0

Copyright 1999 by Bennett Campbell
(apparatus@juno.com)
Last updated January 6, 2002
First Version August 1998

This document is public domain and may not be used, in whole or in part, for profit of any kind.  No part of this document may be used without the express permission of the author.  If you would like to host this document on a website, please contact me.  This document may not be reproduced without this paragraph or the header.  Gran Turismo is a trademark of Sony Computer Entertainment America Inc., copyright 1998.  All manufacturers, cars, names, brands, and associated imagery are trademarks and/or copyright material of their respected owners.  All rights reserved.

Special Thanks to:
Kenji Morishige for devoting so much time to such a great forum.
(www.granturismo.com)
My dad, for showing me just how true to life that Prelude SH is, and that being a good driver means being in control.
Pete Landers (landers@europa.com) for delivering me from 'sin'.
Thoasiii for picking up where others left off
Everyone who has ever answered a GT question for me or anyone else.

Throughout this FAQ, several abbreviations are used.
GT = Gran Turismo
FF = Front Engine, Front Wheel Drive
FR = Front Engine, rear Wheel Drive
MR = Mid (rear) Engine, Rear Wheel Drive
4WD = Four (all) Wheel Drive
HP (bHP) = Horsepower (or Brake Horsepower, the true measured unit)
RPM = Revolutions per minute.  What your tachometer shows you

Table of Contents:

1-About this FAQ
 a-Why another GT FAQ?
 b-What's so special about GT?
2-Starting out
 a-I just started the game.  What car should I buy?
 b-These license tests are too hard!  Why do I have to pass them, and
   is there an easier way?
 c-How do I get my AI license?  This is impossible!
 d-I have a couple decent cars, but winning and selling Demios and
   Camaros is tedious.  How can I make some fast cash?
3-About the cars
 a-What's the best car in the game?
 b-Okay smart guy, then what are the best cars for each series?
 c-What are all the cars I can win from each series?
 d-I can't win a specific car/color.  What do I need to do to get it?
 e-I've heard of a checkered taxi looking Silvia LM.  How do I get it?
 f-How do I get the Dodge Concept car?
 g-How do I get the Corvette Stingray in Sim mode?
 h-I keep seeing a TRD 3000GT in the Normal race, but I can't find it
   anywhere!
 i-Okay, what about the International A license?
 j-Are those cars from the licenses really worth it?  Those tests are
   hard!
 k-I won the GT World Cup but didn't get a car!  What kind of ripoff is
   this!?
 l-I won a series other than the GT World Cup but didn't get a car!
   What kind of ripoff is THIS!?
 m-I can't find the GTO LM or the Skyline NISMO in the used lots.  How
   can I get these cars?
 n-What cars can enter the Lightweight Challenge?
 o-Why can't the CRX or Eunos Roadster I win compete in the Lightweight
   challenge?
 p-Why do some cars' HP differ from the dealer to my garage?
4-Tuning Info
 a-What are good settings for my (GTO/Concept car/other car)?
 b-How do I change the gear ratios?
 c-Since you mentioned it, what's the difference between torque and
   horsepower?
 d-The graph in my gear settings says my car can go over 300mph, but I
   can never go that fast.  What's up with that?
 e-My car won't accelerate at low speeds, or takes a loooong time, even
   though it has over 800bhp!
 f-Why can I put a Stage 1 Turbo in my car even though it says
   Naturally Aspirated on the spec sheet?
 g-Why can't I increase the displacement of any of my cars?
 h-When I go to buy parts for my car, it says 'purchased' even though I
   haven't bought it!
5-Miscellaneous
 a-Why can't I ever see a Mutsubishi GTO on the road?
 b-How can I drive in real life like I do in GT?
 c-What kinds of codes are there for GT?
 d-What is the car wash for, besides a waste of 50 credits?
 e-Why do all the prize cars sell for the same amount?  Isn't a DB7
   worth a bit more than a Demio?
 f-What's this demo disc that has an awesome GT download I've heard
   about?
 g-What's the best controller to use for GT?
6-On-line racing
 a-You're telling me I can race other people on line?  How?
 b-What's a Dex Drive?
7-Racing Technique
 a-What is 'drifting'?
 b-What is the 'inside' of a turn, the 'outside', and the 'apex'?
 c-What is the 'driving line'?
 d-What is 'drafting'?
8-Contacting me


1. About this FAQ

1a. Why another GT FAQ?

   There are lots of other FAQs for GT out there.  A quick look on Gamefaqs will show you not only plenty of general FAQs, but some very specific ones pertaining to the licenses, specific cars, and so forth.  So what am I writing this for?  Well, FAQ stands for Frequently Asked Questions.  In my time on several GT message boards, I've seen some of the same questions pop up over and over, and they are by and large not covered by any of the other FAQs.  So this is a true FAQ, a compilation of questions that I've seen and can answer.

1b. What's so special about GT?

   Why is GT so special that I should feel the need to write a FAQ for it?  This has been discussed in many other places to its fullest extent, but here it is quickly.  GT is the best all-around racing game you can get for a console.  That's because not only does it have exotic cars like the Viper or the TVR's, but it also has everyday cars you see on the road, like Civics and 180SX's.  The modification and tuning processes are very realistic, and each car has it's own style and personality.  The replay value is high, as there are cars that are excellent for beginners and others that challenge experienced players.  All in all, it's a great game that you can come back to again and again.

2. Starting Out

2a. I just started the game.  What car should I buy?

   There are many cars that will be just fine for the $10,000 you have.  Any used car that you can afford will easily bring you through the Sunday and Clubman cups, especially after it's modified a little.  Buy you car before testing for any licenses, as some good cars may rotate out of the used lots by the time you're done.  Immediately after buying your car, get your B-class license so that you can start doing some real racing.

   I suggest buying an FF car to begin with, and if you feel secure enough one that is also allowed in the Lightweight championship.  This will let you compete in the maximum number of series possible without having to buy new cars.  The 4WD and FR challenges have some tough competition for this level, and you'll probably need to buy a more expensive car before you can compete in them.

   The best FF car to buy right off is probably a used Honda Prelude Vtec.  It's an excellent all-around B-class car that can bring you as far as you need to go at this point in the game.  If you want a car that can compete in Lightweight, try an Acura Integra, Mitsubishi FTO gpx, or a used '93 Honda Civic 3-Door Si if any are affordable.  They are all FF and lightweight cars, and will allow you to enter three series with your B-license.  Pete Landers notes that "The '93 Civic 3-door Si has hidden horsepower. Most cars when you get them into your garage have less HP than it said at the dealer (see 3p), but this Civic shows about 40 more horsepower when you get it 'home.' Not only that but this car says it is Normally Aspirated (NA) at the dealership, but there is a turbo available that makes it embarrass many more expensive cars. (see 4f)"  The combination of all these factors makes the Civic a great first car, and it looks good too.
  
   As FR cars go, there are quite a few that will serve you well from the start.  Beware though, as if you have little or no experience with the game, rear-wheel drive cars are extremely hard to control.  You may find yourself spinning out repeatedly.  Some of the best beginning FR cars are the Toyota MA70 Supra, the Nissan Silvias, the Mazda RX-7 GT-X, and the Nissan R32 Skyline GTS 25 type S (the one that's around $10,000).

2b. These license tests are too hard!  Why do I have to pass them, and is there an easier way?

   Well, you could always keep running Spot Races for $1000 a pop.  If this sounds good to you, go to the Special event screen, and scroll over to the Normal Challenge.  Look at the info... and at the prize money.  $50,000 for a first place finish in one race.  That's your motivation.

   There is no 'easy' way to pass the license tests, and they're there for a reason.  Basically, they're a training mode for the game.  You need to know what they teach you in order to compete in the races they open up.  If you can't pass your A-tests, I can guarantee you won't be competitive in the nation vs. nation races.  There's nothing too hard about them, especially the B and A licenses, you just have to keep at them.  When I first got the game, it took me an hour to pass B1!  Just keep a good racing line and keep practicing.

2c. How do I get my AI license?  This is impossible!

   It's not impossible, it just seems very very hard if you aren't prepared for it.  As mentioned above, there is no easy way to pass the tests, so you'll have to buckle down and just keep trying.  A few hints to remember:

A: Practice Practice Practice!  I don't know anyone who passed all their AI tests on the first try.  Keep at it, and you'll get them all.

B: If you're not ready, don't sweat it.  If you can't even pass one single test, then forget about it for now.  The IA license only opens up 5 races, one of which doesn't give you a prize car and three of which are enduros that take a long, long time to race.  Run the nation vs. nation races for a while and get all 6 prize cars from them, as they're all very good cars.  Go back and challenge yourself on some of the other races, or try some cars you haven't tried yet.  Come back to the IA tests later, after you've gained some experience, and they'll be easier.

C: Look at the replays in the replay theater.  The racing line is the single most important thing in the IA tests.  A racing line is the path you choose through the course, where you enter and exit each turn.  The replays will show you some very good lines you can try to copy to help you.  Watch the replays from the view you'd be using while driving, and pay attention to things like landmarks and turn speeds.  The replays are a valuable tool in passing the tests.

D: Drive the whole test.  Even if you make a mistake, finish the test to see how long it took you and to familiarize yourself with the track.  Sometimes what you think is a mistake may not be that bad, and you can still pass.  Don't watch your time either, as it will only distract you from your driving.

E: Try them out of order.  Specifically, try running all the odd races then the all the evens, or vice-versa.  Since the test car alternates between the Viper and the Griffith 500, this will help you get used to the same car instead of having to switch back and forth.

Pete Landers has some other suggestions as well:

"The main reason why people can't pass the AI license tests is because they are not used to FR cars. The next most common reason is because they rely on massive horsepower and racing bodies in races where these things are not needed. These short cuts are allowed by the game and just about everyone uses them at first to quickly get their trophies. The simplest solution is to race in Normal Cup with the Viper GTS and the Griffith 500.  Both cars actually can beat the NSX at Deep Forest II. This can become tedious, however. Another more fun way to practice is to race in GT Cup without a racing body (but take all weight reduction) and only two stages of turbo (and no other HP mods) using any FR car that starts with 276 HP. The result should be a fairly close battle. Another reason this is better is because the tracks are many of the same ones used in the AI license tests. Similarly, try Clubman Cup and the FR Challenge in a B class FR car with only two stages of weight reduction and a single stage of turbo. In this example, however, the races are very hard but the experience will pay off."

2d. I have a couple decent cars, but winning and selling Demios and Camaros is tedious.  How can I make some fast cash?

   First off, there are no codes inherent in the game that just give you money.  Now, with that out of the way, there are two ways to make lots of money in GT.  One requires a high initial investment, while the other requires a very high initial investment.

   The first, and easiest, way to make lots of money in GT is the following: Buy a Viper from Dodge (doesn't matter which one, I like the GTS because it's extra weight gives it some better handling for me).  Take it to the Normal series (you need your a-license, by the way).  Win win win.  The Viper is a shoe-in for this series once you learn the basics of driving it (lots of countersteering), and at 10,000 per pole position, 50,000 per 1st place finish, and 100,000 for a series win, you should be making at least 400,000 each time you enter this series.  It should take about a half hour or so to finish the series.

   The second, more expensive way, is a bit less tedious.  Get any high-powered car... top of the line Skyline, GTO TT, Supra RZ, Cerbera, Viper, NSX.  Tune it to the max, go with everything.  Enter the car in the Megaspeed series.  Make sure you properly tune your gears as well as the other settings (see 4b).  You should have no problem winning the series.  Even though you make a bit less in this series, it takes much shorter to run, and it's a bit more fun, even though Normal is more challenging.

3. About the cars

3a. What's the best car in the game?

   This may sound wishy-washy, but I don't think there is a 'best car'.  Some cars are all around better than others, but at the top levels, each car has it's own unique advantages and disadvantages.  Also, people define 'best' in different ways.  Some think that top speed makes a car best.  However, a high top speed won't do much for you on courses like Autumn Ring Mini.  Others think handling is most important, but even if your car handles like it's on rails, you still need acceleration and speed.  A good mixture of all abilities is what makes a car best, but once you analyze that mixture, no one car stands out on top overall.  Also, different driving styles favor different cars, so what I might find a great handling car, you might not be able to use at all.  Here are some of my picks for some of the better cars, in no particular order.

-Dodge Concept Car (prize model): Generally seen as the most powerful car in the game, it's extremely quick and extremely sticky.  Light and powerful, this car will power you to a first place finish in any race it can enter, no problem.
-Dodge Viper: Either model, this is one of the cars that can pull out an impressive Triple Crown of the three hardest series in the game: Normal, Tuned, and World Cup.  The best car in normal, hands down, and it handles excellently once you master it.
-Subaru Impreza/Impreza Rally Edition: Great handling, however this car suffers from a lack of top speed.  With a few minor gear changes, that can be fixed to make this car extremely competitive.  Another car that can run a Triple Crown.
-TVR Cerbera/Cerbera LM Edition: Another Triple Crown winner, this car is good all around.  Excellent handling, great top speed, great acceleration, this car really has it all.  In it's LM edition, a top-class car.
-Mitsubishi GTO TwinTurbo/GTO MR: nearly the same car, however the MR doesn't always show up in the used car lot.  The MR is a bit lighter but harder to handle.  One of the fastest cars in the game, the GTO has serious handling problems that can't be completely overcome through tuning.  Its impressive power still gives it an honorable mention
-Mitsubishi FTO LM edition: An extremely light, fast, agile car.  4WD gives it great handling, and its light weight makes it an excellent contender for the 300km enduro and All Night I.  An all around great car that can be easily tuned for speed or acceleration, and fits with many different driving styles.
-Honda Del Sol LM edition:  Another very light, very fast car.  This car is so well-balanced, that it might have perfect handling.  Once you get the feel of this pocket rocket down, nothing will be able to stop you.

   I could keep going on with a few more cars, but I'll stop there.  All of these cars are pretty evenly matched, and as you can see by their descriptions, they are all very different and excel in different areas.  Again, I don't really think there is a best car in the game, though there might be best cars for the differing series...

3b. Okay smart guy, then what are the best cars for each series?

  There are many cars that can win each series, but here are my picks for the best of each one.

-Sunday Cup: almost any car can win this.  The higher-powered cars don't need any modifications, while the lower powered ones will need slight mods unless you're an expert driver.
-Clubman Cup: a bit harder than Sunday Cup, but any car can still win, though the lower powered cars now need more modifications.
-GT Cup: I've won this one with an [R] Demio A-spec, so I'd say that any car can win this one too, however it's hard in many of the C-class cars.  Fully modded B-class cars shouldn't have a problem.
-World Cup: This race isn't too special, as it doesn't give you a prize car.  However, any of the top-level cars can win this easily when fully modded, and many of the B-class cars can in the hands of a good driver.

-FF challenge: Any FF car can win this, though all will need to be at least slightly modified.  The FTO GPX, Preludes, and Integras are your best bets for this one.
-FR challenge: You'll need a high powered FR car for this one, but nothing too drastic.  Any fully modded C-class car will take it, and any of the top level FR cars can win when somewhat modified.  Try a Cerbera, Viper, NSX, or any of the FR LM cars for best results.
-4WD challenge: Any 4WD car will do, but weaker ones like the Pulsar will need to be heavily modified.  Best bets are Impreza, Impreza Rally Edition, GTO Twinturbo, and FTO LM.
-Lightweight challenge: any of the cars listed as allowable can win.  Best car, hands down, is the FTO GPX, with the Integra Type-R running a close second.

-US vs. Japan: there are many cars that can compete, but the high-level cars are best.  For the US, the Viper and Corvette are top picks.  GTO twin Turbo, NSX, FTO LM, and Del Sol LM are the best Japanese picks
-US vs. UK: the US cars listed above are best again, and add the Cerbera, Cerbera LM, and Griffith to the UK side.
-UK vs. Japan: See above for top contenders from each side.

-Normal: Only a handful of cars can win this series, but the Viper (either model) is the best, hands down.
-Megaspeed: Most of the top-level cars can win this one as well, but two of the best are the Supra RZ and GTO Twin Turbo.  Most other high-class cars can be easily tuned to win this, including the Viper, Cerbera/Cerbera LM, Del Sol LM, FTO LM, and the list goes on.
-Tuned: plenty of cars can win this as well, but the Viper, Cerbera, GTO Twinturbo, various Skylines, and Impreza are best.

Grand valley 300km: I used the FTO LM for this 1+1/2 hour race.  It's light weight and handling make it excellent.  The Impreza rally edition, Del Sol LM, and Cerbera LM are other good picks because of their combination of light weight with good handling.
All Night I: same as above
All Night II: Same as Tuned

3c. What are all the cars I can win from each series?

   Probably one of the most asked questions.  Here's a rundown.  Note that the following series have three colors of two different prize cars (total 6 different prizes): FF, FR, 4WD, Lightweight, Megaspeed, and Normal challenges.  Note that the following have two different colors of two prize cars (total 4 prizes): US vs. JP, UK vs. US, UK vs. JP.  Note that the following have 2 colors of one single prize car (total 2 prizes): All Night 1, Grand Valley 300km

-Sunday Cup
  Demio A-spec
   Silver
-Clubman Cup
  Camaro 30th Anniversary Edition
    White with orange stripes
-GT Cup
  Soarer LM
    Black
-FF Challenge:
  CRX EF-8 SiR
    Purple with red rims
    Black with red rims
    Yellow with red rims
  Celica SS-II
    Green
    Yellow
    Purple
-FR Challenge
  Sil Eighty
    Purple
    Blue
    Yellow
  S13 Silvia Q's 1800
    Green
    Burgundy
    Yellow
-4WD Challenge
  Lancer GSR Evo.IV
    Green
    Purple
    Yellow
  Alcyone SVX S4
    Light Blue
    Dark Blue
    White
-Lightweight Challenge
  EK Civic Type-R
    Yellow with black trim
    Blue with black trim
    Pink with black trim
  Eunos Roadster
    Gold Metallic
    Light Purple
    Yellow
-US vs. Japan
  Viper GTS-R
    White with blue stripes
    White with green stripes
  FTO LM
    Black
    Green
-UK vs. Japan
  Del Sol LM
    Red with white stripes
    Black with white stripes
  Cerbera LM
    White with green trim
    White with crimson trim
-UK vs. US
  Concept Car
    Purple
    Yellow
  RX-7 LM
    Green
    Purple
-Megaspeed
  DB7 Coupe
    White
    Purple
    Red
  Soarer 2.5 GT-T VVT-I
    Yellow
    Purple
    ???
-Normal
  Impreza Sedan WRX v.III
    Light blue
    Orange
    Yellow
  Supra RZ
    Purple
    Sky blue
    Copper
-Tuned
  AE86 Sprinter Trueno GT Apex
    Pink
    Blue
    Green
  '91 Skyline GT-R
    Red
    Yellow
    Blue
-Grand Valley 300km
  Castrol Supra GT
    Black/red/blue
    Black/red/green
-All Night I
  S14 Silvia LM
    Red
    Green
-All Night II
  Skyline GT-R LM
    Silver    

3d. I can't win a specific car/color.  What do I need to do to get it?

   Everyone seems to have their own tricks to getting specific cars.  Sometimes they work, but usually they only work for the person who comes up with them (sounds a bit fishy).  The truth is, the way the game assigns you a prize car is random, so there is no surefire way to guarantee a specific car/color.

   To go into a bit more depth, you have to understand what the word 'random' means to a computer.  A computer can't actually come up with anything completely random, as all computers do is what you tell them.  Many programs call for randomness, windows solitaire for example.  It needs to randomize the deck each time you play.  So if a computer can't really do anything at random, how does it do that?  To generate randomness, a computer needs a random number 'seed', which the program in question processes to generate the randomness desired.  Computers generally take the time, down to fractions of seconds, as random number seeds, and since you'll never have exactly the same time twice, that works pretty well.

   The Playstation, however, has no internal memory or battery backup, and thus doesn't keep track of the time or date.  That leaves very few ways for GT to generate the random number seed needed to give you a prize car.  The best bet is that the seed comes off of some data on the memory card.  What data exactly is not known, but it could be one of many things; your garage data, the game day, top time data, license data, or a combination of many of these.  That's why you'll keep getting the same car very very often if you keep playing the same series over and over; you're not changing the data on the card, so the odds are pretty high that you'll get that car.  What you need to do is even out the odds.  There are two ways to do this; changing the data on the card, and loading the game without the memory card in.  

   By changing the data on the card, you're potentially changing the seed data.  However, if you actually change the seed and how it's changed will be unknown... you may not change it at all, and if you do the change may not make that much of a difference.  Loading the game without the memory card in seems to have better effect of evening the odds, bringing them to almost exactly equal chances for each outcome (1 in 4 chance to get a specific color of car in the US vs. JP series, for example).  Just load your game from the load screen.

   Of course, you could always just find someone who has that car and buy it off their memory card as well.  If you have a Dex Drive (see 6b), there are game saves on various web sites that have all the prize cars in all colors.

3e. I've heard of a checkered taxi looking Silvia LM.  How do I get it?

   There have been no confirmed reports that this car exists, but if it does, you should be able to get it in the All Night I race.

3f. How do I get the Dodge Concept car?

   There are two ways.  You can get a non-sellable, stock version by getting all gold on your B-class license tests.  This can cannot be [R] modified, and it's engine can only take a stage 1 NA tune.  You can get a modified, really good version from the UK vs. US series.

3g. How do I get the Corvette Stingray in Sim mode?

   You can't.  It's only available in Arcade mode.  You can sometimes see it in spot races (you'll never race against it on a series).  You can use a Gameshark to get it in sim mode, but you can't modify it, and I'd at least want some stabilizers, if not a new suspension and tires.

3h. I keep seeing a TRD 3000GT in the Normal race, but I can't find it anywhere!  How do I get this car?

   You get the TRD 3000GT by getting all gold on your a-class license tests.

3i. Okay, what about the International A license?

   You get a Nismo 400R from all golds on the IA license.

3j. Are those cars from the licenses really worth it?  Those tests are hard!

   None of them are anything that you need to play the game, though they are all nice as 'trophy' cars.  The concept car is a nice free car to get if you're just starting out.  It's a good car to start with since it's free.  Did I mention you don't pay for it?  If you think you can get it right away, go for it.  Don't get frustrated over it, though.  The TRD is generally said to not be worth the trouble of getting gold on A-4.  The Nismo 400R, however, is a great car, and if you can do it, get it.  If you do the get the TRD or the Nismo 400R, you should save your game immediately.  You can then buy copies of the cars in stock form by putting your memory card in slot two.  This way, you can have a stock, tuned, and racing modified version of each car, since you can only win these cars once.

3k. I won the GT World Cup but didn't get a car!  What kind of ripoff is this!?

   Winning the GT World Cup gives a prize that is (supposedly) more important than a car.  It unlocks GT Hi-Fi mode.  Go to special events, and continue hitting next until you come to the GT Hi-Fi mode screen.  You can race a time trial on any of the three night racks in Hi-Fi.  The difference between Hi-Fi and normal GT is the framerate; it's nearly doubled in Hi-Fi mode.  You'll also notice some improvement in the replays, especially if you wash your cars.  The reflections on your car will really look great.

3l. I won a series other than the GT World Cup but didn't get a car!  What kind of ripoff is THIS!?

   You can only have 100 cars in your garage at a time.  If you have 100, you can't win any new ones.  Better sell a few, if it's really that important.

3m. I can't find the GTO MR or the Skyline NISMO in the used lots.  How can I get these cars?

   Some cars are 'rare', and won't always show up in the used lots.  The two most asked-about are the GTO MR and the Nismo, but there are other, lower class cars that nobody cares about that are rare too.  They will show up eventually; no car ever disappears forever, you just have to keep looking.  The used lots change on every tenth day (every day that ends in a 0), so check then.

3n. What cars can enter the Lightweight Challenge?

   This is answered on pages 52-53 of your Reference Manual.

3o. Why can't the CRX or Eunos Roadster I win compete in the Lightweight challenge?

   I don't know, they just can't.  Apparently, the game treats them as different cars, even though they are no heavier than the ones you can buy.  That really pissed me off too, because I really like that gold metallic roadster, damnit!  The game also treats prize cars as different models for modification parts purposes, so you can't use the lifetime supply of parts from your bought Impreza WRX on your prize one. (see 4h)

3p.Why do some cars' HP differ from the dealer to my garage?

   Most of the cars in the game will have a different HP number when you bring them home (not just used cars, as many think).  There are various theories about why, the most popular being this: the japanese government limits production cars to 276bHP.  The difference is supposed to mask the real HP value of the car.  I don't believe this to be true, for two reasons.  One, the majority of the cars in the game experience this phenomena, not just the very powerful ones.  I can't understand why it would be illegal to buy an 81bHP Demio but not a 77bHP one.  Two, why would those laws affect a video game?
The most reasonable answer is because the programmers either had to or wanted to, simple as that.

	The following is a list of cars whose HP values differ from the dealer to your garage.  If a car isn't listed, it's either a prize car or the numbers don't change.

                          Dlr. Gar.                           Dlr. Gar.
Car:                      HP   HP   Car:                      HP   HP

Starlet Glanza V          133  131  Corolla Levin BZG         162  158
Sprinter Trueno BZG       162  158  Celica GT-Four            251  245
Mark II '92 Tourer V      276  266  Mark II '92 Tourer S      177  175
Chaser Tourer V           276  286  Chaser Tourer S           197  192
Soarer '95 2.5 GT-T       276  269  Soarer 2.5 GT-T VVT-i     276  269
MR2 G-Limited             177  167  MR2 GT-S                  241  243
Supra '95 SZ-R            221  213  Supra SZ-R                221  213
Supra RZ                  276  300  MA70 Supra GT Turbo Ltd   236  230
JZA70 Supra Twin Turbo R  276  268  AE86 Corolla Levin GTAPEX 128  133
AE86 Sprinter T.no GTAPEX 128  133  Fairlady Z ver.S 2 by 2   226  225
Fairlady Z TwinTurbo 2b2  276  272  Fairlady Z ver.S 2-seater 226  225
Fairlady Z ver.S TT 2str  276  272  R32 Skyline '89 GT-R      276  303
R32 Skyline '91 GT-R      276  303  R32 Skyline GT-R Vspec    276  303
R32 Skyline GT-R Vspec II 276  303  R32 Skyline GT-R NISMO    276  303
R32 Skyline GTS-t Type M  212  208  R32 Skyline GTS25 Type S  187  181
R32 Skyline GTS4          ---  ---  R33 Skyline GTS25t Type M 246  237
R33 Skyline '95 GT-R      276  303  R33 Skyline '95 GT-R Vspec276  303
R33 Skyline GT-R          276  303  R33 Skyline GT-R Vspec    276  303
S14 Silvia Q's            157  152  S14 Silvia K's            216  208
S14 Silvia '95 Q's        157  152  S14 Silvia '95 K's        216  208
S13 Silvia '91 Q's 2000cc 138  133  S13 Silvia '91 K's 2000cc 202  198
S13 Silvia '88 Q's 1800cc 133  129  S13 Silvia '88 K's 1800cc 172  168
Primera '90 2.0Te         147  142  Primera '95 2.0Te         147  142
180SX '95 Type X          ---  ---  180SX Type X              202  198
180SX Type S              138  133  Pulsar '91 GTi-R          226  222
GTO '92 SR                221  214  GTO '92 Twin Turbo        276  310
GTO '95 SR                221  214  GTO '95 Twin Turbo        276  311
GTO '95 MR                276  311  GTO SR                    221  214
GTO Twin Turbo            276  311  Galant VR-G Touring       147  142
Galant VR-4               276  272  Eclipse GT                226  216
FTO '94 GR                167  161  FTO '94 GPX               ---  ---
FTO GR                    177  171  FTO GPX                   197  189
FTO GP version R          197  189  Lancer EvoIII GSR         266  259
Lancer EvoIV GSR          276  268  Mirage Asti RX            172  167
Mirage '92 Cyborg R       172  167  Prelude '93 Si            160  152
Prelude '94 VTEC          190  205  Prelude                   195  188
Prelude SH                195  208  Civic Sedan               127  164
Civic 3-Door              106  164  Civic (racer)             182  175
del Sol '93 S             ---  ---  del Sol '93 Si            125  159  
Civic '91 CR-X Si         108  152  Civic '93 3-Door Si       125  164
Civic '93 Sedan           125  164  Accord Sedan              170  181
Accord Wagon              145  181  NSX '91                   170  268
NSX '93                   270  268  NSX                       290  285
NSX Type S                276  285  NSX Type S Zero           276  285
Integra GS-R              170  171  Integra Type R            195  189
Eunos Cosmo 13B Type-SCCS 226  220  Eunos Cosmo 20B Type-ECCS 276  270
Lantis Coupe 2000 Type-R  167  169  Eunos Roadster '89 Normal 118  114
Eunos Roadster '90 V-sp.  118  114  Eunos Roadster '92 S-sp.  118  114
Eunos Roadster Normal     128  127  Eunos Roadster V-special  128  127
Eunos Roadster S-special  128  127  FD Efini RX-7 '91 Type-R  261  256
FD Efini RX-7 Type RZ     261  256  FD Efini Rx-7 Type RB     261  256
FD Efini Rx-7 Touring-X   261  256  FD Efini Rx-7 A spec      261  256
FC Savanna RX-7 GT-X      202  199  FC Savanna RX-7 Efini III 212  204
Demio GL-X                 98   94  Demio GL                   98   94
Demio LX-G package         81   77  Alcyone SVX Version L     ---  ---Legacy Touring Sedan RS   276  270  Legacy Touring Wagon GT-B 276  270
Legacy '93 Touring Sp RS  246  239  Legacy '93 Touring Wg GT  246  239
Impreza WRX-Sti Type-R    276  270  Impreza '96 Sedan WRX     276  268
Impreza '96 Sed.WRXStiIII 276  270  Impreza '96 Wag.WRXSTiIII 276  270
Impreza '95 Sed.WRXSTiII  256  250  Impreza '95 Wag.WRXSTiII  256  250
Impreza '94 Sedan WRX     256  250  Impreza '94 Wagon WRX     256  250
DB7 Coupe                 335  328  DB7 Volante               335  328
Viper RT/10               449  440  Viper GTS                 449  440
Cerbera                   350  343  Griffith 500              340  333
Griffith 4.0              335  327  Camaro Z28                285  279
Corvette '96 Coupe        330  323  Corvette '96 Grand Sport  330  323


4. Tuning Info

4a. What are good settings for my (GTO/Concept car/other car)?

   Listing what settings do what is another FAQ entirely.  There are plenty of places on the net to find good settings info.

Kenji Morishige has lots of car settings at:
http://www.granturismo.com/tuning/index.html
Bob Chmilnitzky's Tuning FAQ can be found at: http://www.gamefaqs.com/console/psx/faq/gran_turismo_tuning_stop_it.txt
King Spon's GT Driver's Guide can be found at:
http://members.tripod.com/~KingSpon/gt/gt_guide.html

   One thing I will touch on though are gear ratios, because they're easy to do and understand, and everyone should have a grasp on how to tune your gears to get the most out of your car.

4b. How do I change the gear ratios?

   Gear ratios are the easiest way to customize you car for a specific track or series.  Basically, changing the gear ratios changes your car's acceleration and top speed, with the acceleration having an inverse relationship to top speed.  Increasing acceleration decreases top speed, and vice-versa.  Here are some basic tips on tuning your gears.  Gear ratios are especially important for those who use automatic transmissions, as they dictate where and when the car will shift.  Altering the gear ratios in an automatic can help you keep the car in the gears you want around key corners and on the straights.

   Note that there is no 'right' gear ratio for any given car.  Gear ratios are simply a way to customize the car's power output for a specific track and driver.  Everyone will have different preferences as to what works best for them depending on their driving style, so what one person uses may not be great for another.  You just have to experiment with them and find out what works best for you.

   First, go into either your boost level setting or your engine parts change from the pre-race menu.  You'll see a graph of your power output and some numbers.  The important numbers are your max horsepower and max torque output.  You'll see them displayed like this, for example: 350HP @ 5200rpm and 225lb/ft @ 5000 rpm.  In some cars, the rpm numbers are the same, in others they aren't.  You want to keep both numbers in mind, but I consider torque more important than HP for this application.

   Now go into your gear ratio settings.  You'll see some slider bars and some yellow lines on a graph.  The closer the lines are together, the faster acceleration, and the further the last line reaches to the right, the higher top speed you'll have.  You'll have a slider bar for each gear, plus one for final drive; the final drive bar will change the properties of all the gears at once.

   As you scroll down each slider, you'll see numbers appear to the left of the graph and one of the yellow lines will be highlighted.  The lower number you see is the rpm that the highlighted gear will start at (for an automatic transmission; manuals you can shift at will, but this all still applies).  If you look to the left, you'll see mph numbers next to each gear.  That's how fast the car will be going at the lowest rpm value of that gear, where the gear will begin with an automatic transmission.  Also, if you follow the top of the highlighted line straight down, you'll see the maximum speed this gear will reach.

   The most important thing to keep in mind is to keep the lowest rpm number of each gear lower than the rpm number of your maximum torque output (and your max HP output as well if possible).  Make sure this is always the case, or you will not get the most power out of shifting your gears, making it essentially futile.  The higher your gear is, the closer the starting number will be to your max torque output, and that's good.  In fact, your last gear should start just barely below your max torque, so that you can still accelerate at such a high speed.  Also, it's important to make sure that each gear's starting speed (mph) is higher than the last's, or else you'll skip gears and have some strange shifts.

   Once you've set up each gear individually, you can alter the final drive gear to suit your taste.  More acceleration is good for tracks with lots of twists and few straights, and more top speed is good for things like the Megaspeed series.  You can always break the rules I've mentioned above, and you should, in order to better understand gear ratios.  Some cars need unique combinations of gear ratios.  One of my favorite examples is the Subaru Impreza.  It has an excellent power band, but is somewhat limited in it's top speed.  I like to set up the first four gears normally, then lengthen out the fifth gear so it can travel a much further range... say from 4500rpm on up.  This gives me the acceleration I need in my first four gears out of turns, and the fifth gear kicks in on the long straights when I need it.

4c. Since you mentioned it, what's the difference between torque and horsepower?

   Torque and horsepower are both measures of power in a car, just different ways of measuring that power.  HP (actually Brake Horsepower, or bHP, because of the way it's measured) is a measure of the total output of the car's engine.  Torque is a measure of twisting force, and you've probably heard of it if you've taken any Physics classes.  The torque rating of a car is often a more accurate than the bHP rating, as it can measure the actual force of the tires against the road.  This is a basic description, doing a search on the web can turn up some more detailed information if you're interested.

4d. The graph in my gear settings says my car can go over 300mph, but I can never go that fast.  What's up with that?

   You car would eventually go that fast if you had an indefinitely long, flat, straight surface to drive on, and a planet with no atmosphere.  Since you eventually have to turn, and we have air on Earth, you can't always reach that speed.  The actual top speed of you car is a function of not only the listed top speed, but also of the car's acceleration ability at high speeds.  If your car can't accelerate well at 240+mph, then it'll be hard to reach 250.  Sometimes, raising the final drive gear so that you have increased acceleration can help your top speed as well, because it increases your car's acceleration abilities at all speeds.  At high speeds, you also fight against air resistance, which will ultimately limit every car.

4e. My car won't accelerate at low speeds, or takes a loooong time, even though it has over 800bhp!

   Your car is suffering from Turbo Lag.  A turbocharged engine is no different from a naturally aspirated engine except that it has a turbine that pushes air into the chambers (that's why naturally aspirated engines are called just that; to 'aspirate' means to breathe... not to be confused with the Ford 'Aspire', which is just a shitty car).  This helps the car pump out more horses.  However, it takes a while for the turbine to get up to speed and pump that air in, and until it does, the engine performs very poorly.  So the reason your car takes so long to rev up is that the turbocharger has to kick in first.

   Generally, the higher the horsepower, the longer the lag (depending on the car).  If you have a Skyline with 910bhp, for example, you're going to have quite a bit of turbo lag.  Try changing the boost under settings, and dropping the car to around 600-700bhp.  You don't need any more than that to win a race, and you'll notice a drop in the lag.  Also, the car will be more handleable, since if you floor it with 900 ponies under the hood, you're going to have a tendency to spin the tires and you'll have some handling side effects.

4f. Why can I put a Stage 1 Turbo in my car even though it says Naturally Aspirated on the spec sheet?

   There are a few NA cars that can take a Stage 1 Turbo instead of an NA tune.  These cars are generally fairly weak, low-class cars.  In these cases, you have to make a choice on how you want to build the car.  A turbo will give the car more power, but doing so will give the car a noticeable amount of turbo lag (see 4e).  Going with the NA tune won't allow you to have the same amount of HP as the Turbo, but low-end acceleration will be increased.  The following is a list of cars which are naturally Aspirated but can take Stage 1 Turbos.

Civic '93 3-door Si
Civic '93 Sedan
Corolloa Levin BZG
Sprinter Trueno BZG
AE86 Corolla Levin GT-APEX
AE86 Sprinter Trueno GT-APEX
Demio LX-G Package
Demio GL
Demio GL-X
Eunos Roadster normal
Eunos Roadster S-special
Eunos Roadster V-special
Eunos Roadster '90 V-special
Eunos Roadster '89 normal
Eunos Roadster '92 S-special
S13 Silvia Q's 1800cc

4g. Why can't I increase the displacement of any of my cars?

   Very few cars have this option available, and they are all Skylines.  Here's the list:

R33 GTS25t TypeM
R33 GT-R
R33 GT-R Vspec
R32 GTS-t Type M
R32 '89 GT-R
R32 '91 GT-R
R32 GT-R NISMO
R33 '95 GT-R
R32 GTR Vspec
Skyline GT-R LM

4h. When I go to buy parts for my car, it says 'purchased' even though I haven't bought it!

   You have already owned this car and bought those parts for it.  Parts that are added on to cars are bought in a lifetime supply, so to speak.  When you buy a Muffler or a Tuned Rom, you're buying it for all the cars you have and ever will have of that same exact make and model.  Even if you sold the old car and bought one again, you'll still have the parts.  All you have to do is put them on in the settings menu from the pre-race menu.  This works only for parts that are actually added to the car, not modifications like weight reductions or Port Polishing.

5. Miscellaneous

5a. Why can't I ever see a Mutsubishi GTO on the road in real life?

   While many of the cars in GT are pretty common, and you can see lots of them on the road, there could be two reasons you'll never see certain cars on the road.  Keep in mind that the game was made in Japan, with many Japanese cars.  If you live in the US, there are lots of cars that just don't make it over to our shores, a prime example being the Skyline.  Other cars, like the GTO, are under a Japanese name, and are called something else in the states.  The GTO, for instance, is the 3000GT (not to be confused with the Toyota TRD 3000GT).

5b. How can I drive in real life like I do in GT?

   Don't.  All you'll end up doing is damaging your car at best, and hurting yourself or someone else at worst.  I've already paid nearly $1000 fixing my car after trying stupid GT stunts, so just don't do it.  I also consider myself lucky that I'm all right after doing things like driving up a mountain sideways for 60 or so feet.  If you really want to race a car, I suggest contacting your local chapter of the Sports Car Club of America (if you live in the US), visit www.scca.org for more info. Get involved in autocrossing, which is low-risk single-car time trials, where you compete against other people's times in your class.

5c. What kinds of codes are there for GT?

   There are no codes inherent in the game.  None whatsoever.  There are gameshark codes however, which can do things like give you lots of money, all your licenses, and free cars.  That isn't as much fun as actually accomplishing these things though.  Any search engine should be able to pull up some codes for you.

5d. What is the car wash for, besides a waste of 50 credits?

   If you notice, when you buy a new car it's all nice and shiny.  In the showroom it will reflect the floor lights, and in race replays you'll see the reflections of other cars.  As you race your car, it'll lose that luster, and look a bit dull and oxidized.  The car wash simply restores it to that nice shiny new brilliance.  Some colors, oranges and some of the duller reds especially, look kind of cool oxidized though. 

5e. Why do all the prize cars sell for the same amount?  Isn't a DB7 worth a bit
more than a Demio?

   Yes, the Aston Martin is worth more than the Demio, and is worth plenty more than $12,000.  All the cars sell for the same amount ($10,000, or $12,000 at the dealer that makes the car) for a very specific reason, but only the designers know that reason.  We can guess though.  The most probable reason is for game balance.  The designers most likely wanted to give you enough money to make it matter in the early stages of the game, but not too much later on.  If they actually gave you what each car was worth compared to the others, the value of the cars in the nation vs. nation races would exceed the value of the cash prizes by a dozen times or more.  So, in order to give interesting prizes and make selling the early prize cars a decent way to make money, they chose the $12,000 magic number.

5f. What's this demo disc that has an awesome GT download I've heard about?

   The Playstation Underground Jampack Winter '98 disc is the one you're talking about.  It's a demo disc that has a few game downloads on it, one of them being a GT download.  It has all the gold license cars plus some other hard to get cars, and just shy of three billion dollars.  It's about $4 and you should be able to find it at any department store like Target or Wal-Mart.  Make sure you get the Winter '98 CD.

5g. What is the best controller to use for GT?

   Many of the best racers I know use the standard digital controller that came with the older Playstations, and it works just fine for them.  Many others use the Dual Shock with great results.  There are also a variety of wheels and specialty controllers on the market that will work with GT.  Below I'm going to go through each different controller and people's opinions about them (if thy aren't attributed to anyone, they're my own).  Remember, these are just opinion.  If something sounds interesting, go ahead and try it, but noone is making any promises here.

   Sony Digital Controller: This is the standard "d-pad" controller that came with all Playstations up until the Dual Shock model was marketed.  This controller works just fine for many people, even though all the controls are digital, which means they're either 'on' or 'off'.  That means that when you press the gas button, you're always flooring it, and when you press the brake, you're always hitting it as hard as possible.  This can be offset with the 'feathering' technique of rapidly tapping the buttons.
   Sony Dual Shock Analog Controller: This is the controller that comes with all new Playstations, and it has two mushroom-shaped analog sticks.  Generally, one stick is assigned to steering and the other to both acceleration and brake.  This is advantageous because, unlike the digital controller, you can now vary your steering through it's full range, along with your acceleration and braking.  Personally, I use it because of the advantages to accel/brake moreso than  the steering, which is still extremely sensitive.  Being able to accelerate slowly out of turns helps to make a much smoother racing line and helps keep high-powered RWD cars under control.
   Interact V3 racing Wheel: This is a wheel/pedal setup.  Matt Lazarowitz has the following comments on it:
"The wheel is sturdy and it has a great set of adjustments, both for sensitivity of the electronics, and also for the physical set up of the wheel. However  I have rather large hands and size 15 feet and I find it difficult to use the setup ( I will jam on both the gas and brake accidentally) or the wheel is not wide enough for me to do a good hand over hand turn but my friends find it easy to use and like it a lot."

I would appreciate any feedback that anyone has on any other controllers for GT.

6. On-line racing

6a. You're telling me I can race other people on line?  How?

   There have been many racing series with various rules and regulations on line since the game was released.  Most of these series and competitions use the honor system: you record your best time, send it to the person running the series, and they tally it all up.  Of course, people could lie about their times, but that's why it's called the honor system.  Most of the races are run on Time Trials, two laps, alone.  This helps each driver to concentrate on proper technique and driving line, instead of the random factors that computer cars represent.

   Many series have begun using Dex Drive data to validate driver times.  This way, each driver can send a replay of their Time Trial to the person running it.  This not only ensures that drivers are submitting correct times, but drivers can download replays to view each other's techniques and driving lines, and race against each other's ghosts in time trials.

   Most on line competitions can be divided into two categories: series and spot races.  A series is just that, a series of races, usually with points given for rankings each race and points totaled up in the end.  Each series has different rules, some using only one car, some combating different cars or manufacturers against each other.  Each driver submits their times on a deadline to the moderator, who compiles them all at once.  This helps to reduce sandbagging.

   A spot race on line is just like a spot race in GT.  You run a single race, usually with a specific theme, like station wagons, FF cars, or cars from a specific manufacturer.  Each driver is free to submit their times whenever they choose (spot races are often held on message boards, with drivers adding their times to the thread).  Spot races are more for fun than competition, so cheating and sandbagging usually isn't too much of a worry.

   Series can be found on many various websites.  A good starting place would be
http://granturismo.inc2000.com/New_Folder/linkspage.htm.  There are links there to many popular racing series.  A search engine should be able to turn up many more.

6b.  What's a Dex Drive?

   The Dex Drive is a device made by Interact (makes of the GameShark), which connects to your computer via a 9-pin serial cable.  It has a slot, like on the front of your playstation, for a memory card.  It simply takes the information off of your memory card and backs it up on your computer, saving as a file with the extension .gme.  This allows you to do two things: First, you can copy your save games from your memory car to your computer.  This means that, not only can you safeguard against file corruption, but you never have to buy another memory card again!  You have, in effect, as many memory cards as you have space for on your hard drive.  Secondly, the Dex Drive allows you to send and download game saves over the internet and through e-mail.  This way, you can trade information with your friends about your favorite games, and download cool game saves.

   What does this mean for GT?  Well, as mentioned in 6a, you can use it to compete in on line racing and be sure everyone knows you're telling the truth.  You can also download other people's replays to learn from them and race against their ghosts.  Also, you can trade garages with other people to get hard-to-find cars.  The Dex Drive costs around $40, and can be found at any good store where you can find Playstation games.

7. Racing technique

7a. What is 'drifting'?

   Drifting is a cornering technique which is described very well in your Reference Manual, pages 22-29.  I suggest you read that before going any further.  What I'm going to go over here is why you would want to drift, and it's most popular counterpart, grip racing.
   Generally, drifting is a method of sliding the rear end of your car around a turn, while keeping your front end generally pointing toward the inside of the turn.  Drifting gives you three distinct advantages: first, it allows you to achieve a higher entry speed (the speed at which you begin turning) on a turn.  By braking late and hard to initiate the drift, you're essentially giving yourself more straightaway to drive on.  Secondly, it helps you achieve a higher apex speed as well.  Instead of simply driving around the apex slowly, you're sliding past it very very quickly.  Thirdly, when used properly, you can set yourself up for your next turn at the end of your drift.  Once you're done sliding, your car should ideally be aligned properly for your next turn, either giving you a good start on the straightaway or helping you to better navigate the next turn ahead.
   Grip racing is the almost exact opposite of drift racing.  In grip racing you slow down slightly earlier, either by braking or shifting to a lower gear, and take a smooth, controlled turn, almost as if you were driving on the road (except going 130mph and using 4 lanes!).  Grip racers try to take a theoretically perfect line through each turn, beginning each turn high to the outside at a controllable speed, apexing at the exact spot, and accelerating up and out of the turn.  Grip racing gives you two distinct advantages over grip racing.  The most important is control of your car.  No matter how good a driver is, drifting is a hard maneuver to do, and many things can go wrong when you're intentionally letting your tires slide.  Grip racing, on the other hand, is very controlled, and in the hands of an intermediate driver, there is very little chance of fatal error.  Also, grip racing achieves much higher exit speeds from a turn.  A drift will slow the car down as it goes through the turn, making the point where they begin to accelerate, most often near the end of the turn, the slowest point of the turn.  The slowest point of a gripped turn is the apex, usually near the middle of the turn, and the car will accelerate out from the apex.
   Drift and grip racing are two different styles, and neither is strictly better than the other.  Often, a particular course or car will be suited to one style or the other, so it's good to be proficient with both, no matter what your preference.  4WD and FF cars, for example, are often more suited to grip racing because of their excellent handling and maneuverability, while high-powered rear-drive cars are often suited to drifting because the extreme speeds they reach can make those extra hundredths of a second on the straight make a real difference.  Courses such as High Speed Ring with long straights and gentle turns make for excellent grip racing, while courses with lots of sharp or s-turns make drifting more important.  It generally comes down to driver prefrence and what each individual can tun out their best lap times with.

7b. What is the 'inside' of a turn, the 'outside', and the 'apex'?

   These are all terms used to describe the parts of a turn.  By this point, you should be realizing that the turns play a huge role in the kind of racing seen in GT.
   The inside of a turn is the edge of the road that is on the side to which you are turning.  For example, if you're turning left, the inside is the edge of the road on the left.  If you're turning right, it's on the right.  It's also referred to as the 'low' point of the turn, so references to 'down' in the turn will mean the inside.
   The outside of the turn is exactly the opposite; the edge of the road on the side opposite that to which you're turning.  You're turning left, the outside is on the right.  Also referred to as the 'high' point of the turn, so refrences to 'up' will mean the outside.
   The apex is an imaginary point on the turn where your car should be as close to the inside of the turn as possible.  Generally, the apex is in the middle of the turn, but it may be moved forward or backward depending on the driver's style.  Wherever it is, the apex divides the turn into two parts: the turn entry is anywhere before the apex, and the turn exit is anywhere after the apex.  You should always be either slowing down or maintaining speed on the turn entry, nd you should always be accelerating on the turn exit.
   The apex is generally in the middle of the turn, as I noted above.  However, if a driver wants higher speed at a specific point in the turn, the apex may be moved.  For higher entry speed, the apex may be moved forward, earlier in the turn, but this greatly reduces exit speed.  For higher exit speed, the apex may be moved further back in the turn, which decreases entry speed, but not as much.  There are some good illustrations of this on pages 18-19 of your Reference Manual.

7c. What is the 'driving line'?

   The driving line, more commonly referred to as simply the line, is an imaginary line along the track that a car should follow to achieve the highest lap time possible.  There are some general rules that the line follows on every track, but it is unique to each track because of the shape and placement of turns and curves, length of straights, placement of rises and depressions in the road, and width of the road.
   The line is briefly mentioned in your Reference Manual, pages 18-19, but I'll explain it a bit here as well.  The line exists only to help you achieve maximum speed throughout every turn in the course.  If there are no turns, the line is straight (as in drag racing), and therefore unnecessary.  It follows that the line is most important through the turns then.
   In general, the line should start at the outside of each turn, touch the inside of the turn at the apex, and come back to the outside of the turn at the end.  This allows for the shortest distance through the turn and the highest entry and exit speed possible.  However, this is only for a single turn.  If you have another turn coming up after a short straight, you need to align yourself for that turn.  If the turn is going the same direction as the one your just took, you have no problem and will already be set up for it, as the outside of both turns will be the same side of the road.  More frequently the next turn will be going in the opposite direction.  If the straight between then is relatively short, you may want to stay closer to the inside of the first turn so you can place yourself correctly at the outside at the beginning of the second turn.  If it's relatively long, you might be able to take a diagonal line across the straight to place yourself correctly.
   Two turns that go in opposite directions with no straight between them are called 's-turns' or 'esses'.  S-turns take a different approach to them.  The beginning of the first turn is taken normally, but once you reach the apex, head for the apex of the second turn in as straight a line as possible.  Don't worry about going back to the outside.  Once you reach the apex of the second turn, go to the outside of that turn to exit.  If there are more than two turns involved, simply travel as straight as possible from apex to apex until you can move the outside of the last turn for the exit.
   These are all, again, general rules for the racing line.  It will be affected by distinctions in the course, and by each driver's personal style.  Each person has their own apex points and turn entries and exits that they prefer, and which give them the best lap times.

7d. What is 'drafting'?

   Drafting is a method that is used very often in professional stock car (NASCAR) and formula 1 racing.  The basic idea is to get behind the car directly in front of you to get in their slipstream (it's also termed 'slipstreaming') and use their displacement of air to help you go faster and pass them.  Thoasiii explained it much better than I ever could have:

   "I don't have my Fluids text book in front of me, and it's been four years since I have thought about fluid dynamics, but here it goes...
   "Drafting is based on the following: When an object moves through a fluid (air being the fluid here), it makes a kind of hole.  The fluid just in front of the object (or car) and around the object must move out of the objects way. The reason the fluid must get out of the object's way is because the fluid has a lesser velocity relative to the object's velocity.  The fluid getting out of the object's way is dragging on the object.  Drag is due to the friction of the fluid passing over the object's surface.  The larger the difference in velocity between the object and the fluid the greater the friction, thus the more drag.  This friction acts against the objects driving force.
   "As the object passes, the fluid must fill up the space that object just left.  If the object is moving fast enough it creates a vacuum just behind, becuase the fluid can not fill the space up fast enough.  This vacuum will cause the fluid to 'follow' the object.  This area of fluid 'following' the object now has some of the object's velocity following the same vector as the object.
   "Let's say a second object is following the first object. The second object has the same velocity vector as the first. Let's call it object 2.  If object 2 is close to the first object, then object 2 is in the fluid 'following'.  Because the fluid 'following' the first object has some velocity in the same vector as object 1 and object 2, it causes less friction to object 2, thus less drag.  Less drag means that it takes less power to keep object 2 moving at the same velocity as object 1."


8. Contacting me

   If you have any suggestions, comments, questions, corrections, or especially additions, please let me know.  I can be reached at apparatus@juno.com or oriole@capital.net.

Topics desired for inclusion in next version:
Different controller types
'Hybrid' cars
Differences between US, European, and Japanese versions of GT

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