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Weapons And Tactics Guide

                         Half-Life Counter Strike
                      Weapons and Tactics Guide v.08
                    by Mochan 
                           last modified 3-11-2001

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Best viewed on a text processor with a fixed size font, width of 79 characters.
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                              MISSION STATEMENT

This file is meant specifically for the Counter Strike player who is getting
trounced all the time from lack of experience and/or knowledge of tactics.
I am sharing in this guide all the tricks to help you even out the playing
field.

You can try out all the other guides floating around, but I will be a big
rat bastard and tell you that mine is the best to pick up. ^_^

But that's just me talking. Go see for yourself.

This FAQ is also designed to make my name a household name and to
promote the [gulay] way of life everywhere. By reading this FAQ you
have condemned yourself to become a vegetable. Have a nice day.

===============================================================================
                                E-MAIL POLICY

    *******   IMPORTANT! READ THIS BEFORE E-MAILING ME ANYTHING   *******

I have created a Mailing List for this guide. I strongly urge you to mail
Anything you have to say there instead of to me. See mailing list info
below. 

If you want to mail me anyway, mail to  but 
PLEASE add a tag to the subject header [CS FAQ] Make sure to use that tag
exactly as I type it, all caps!

[CS FAQ]

Don't forget.

[CS FAQ]

This will help me sort out all CS-related e-mail. Anyone who does
not follow this rule might not receive an answer. >_<

===============================================================================
                                ANNOUNCEMENTS
===============================================================================
Some News:

The CS Weapons and Tactics Guide has its own mailing list! See the Mailing
List section. Yes, now there is no need for me to have a news section. This
is the last time you will see this part of the guide.

Since the last version (v.07) I have:
- Canned the History section! Who cares about ancient history?! It's just
  making the guide larger than it should be. But if anyone wants it back....

New Techniques:
- AK-47 in-depth weapon guide 

Revised:
- FN Para factoids
- Arctic Technique: Shun Satsu Sen (elaborated further on its usage)

===============================================================================
                                 MAILING LIST
===============================================================================

The Half Life: Counter Strike Weapons and Tactics Guide has its own mailing
list! This is primarily for people who wanted me to send them updates as soon
as I finished writing. 

From now on, I will be sending a message to the mailing list whenever a new
version of the guide is available. You can then scoot over to my webpage where
I have stashed latest version (or to GameFAQs, whichever gets it up first).
I would have invited you all to join the ML, but I can't remember everyone who
wrote in! Sorry!

You can also use the mailing list to voice out whatever you want to say about
Counter Strike, playing it, and the guide itself. It is also a good way to 
contact me. This way, I can keep my e-mail account to myself, heheh. Don't
expect much traffic at the ML, though. I'm not sure if people will be wanting
to subscribe and write in. It's really just there for updates.

To subscribe to the list, send mail to  
To post to the list, send mail to       

The homepage of the list is at --  http://groups.yahoo.com/group/CSFAQML

Any other info about the list, such as unsubscribing, should be found there. 

===============================================================================
                               TABLE OF CONTENTS
===============================================================================

MISSION STATEMENT

E-MAIL POLICY

ANNOUNCEMENTS

MAILING LIST

TABLE OF CONTENTS

I. INTRODUCTION
   1.a -- How to Use this Guide

II. BASIC FIGHTING ATTITUDE

III. BASIC COMBAT TRAINING
   3.a -- Camping or Assaulting
   3.b -- Aiming: Accuracy and Recoil
     3.b1 - The Rule of Aiming
   3.c -- Basic Shooting Styles
   3.d -- Range
   3.e -- Damage: Ammo and Location
     3.e1 - Ammo
     3.e2 - Location
     3.e3 - Armor
   3.f -- Stopping Power

IV. THE WEAPONS

   4.a -- Pistols
   4.b -- Shotguns
   4.c -- Submachine Guns
   4.d -- Rifles
   4.f -- Machine Guns
   4.g -- Other Equipment
   4.h -- Weapon Movement Speeds

V. COUNTER-STRIKE TECHNIQUES

   5.a -- General Techniques
     5.a1 - Listening
     5.a2 - Weapon Switching
       5.a2a - Super Weapon Switching
     5.a3 - Radar
       5.a3a -- Cheap Night Vision
     5.a4 - Miscellaneous Console Commands
       5.a4a -- Sensitivity
       5.a4b -- Crosshair
       5.a4c -- Quick Weapon Switching
       5.a4d -- Mouse Filter
       5.a4e -- Binding Technique
       5.a4f -- On the Fly Config Switch
     5.a5 - Speed Buying Technique
     5.a6 - End Reloading Technique
     5.a7 - Bunny Hopping

   5.b -- Defensive Techniques
     5.b1 - Side Stepping
     5.b2 - Ducking
     5.b3 - Jumping
     5.b4 - Shadow Technique
     5.b5 - Hit and Run Technique
     5.b6 - Crowd Defense
       5.b6a -- Hostage Defense
     5.b7 - Smart Reloading
     5.b8 - Continuous Movement Defense
     5.b9 - Flee from Fire Technique
     5.b10 - Backstabbing Technique (Uragiri)
       5.b10a -- Letting the Shadow Pass (Kage Yurutou)
       5.b11a -- Baiting the Enemy
     5.b11 - Hiding the Ghost (Yurei o Kakushite)

   5.c -- Offensive Techniques
     5.c1 - Stationary Aiming
     5.c2 - Hot and Cold Firing Technique
       5.c2a -- Jump Aiming
     5.c3 - Figure Eight Sidestep Technique
       5.c3a -- Anti-Arctic Technique
     5.c4 - Assault Weapon Sniping Technique
     5.c5 - Perpetual Motion Agressiveness Technique
     5.c6 - Find the Weakpoint
       5.c6a -- Finding the Blind Spot
     5.c7 - Money Flash Awareness Technique (Kane Kae Sen)
     5.c8 - Stealth Technique
     5.c9 - Team First, You Last

   5.d -- Dirty Tricks
     5.d1 - Adjusting Light Gamma
     5.d2 - X-Ray Vision
     5.d3 - Super Figure Eight Sidestepping
     5.d4 - Team Jumps
       5.d4a -- Hostage Jumps
     5.d5 - Sound Binds
     5.d6 - Auto Aim
     5.d7 - Smoke no More Technique  (Kemuri Muyougiri)
     5.d8 - Paralyzing Smoke Technique
     5.d9 - Mimic Technique

VI. COUNTER STRIKE ETIQUETTE

VII. WEAPON SPECIFIC TECHNIQUES

   7.i -- Weapon Archetype Guide

   7A. Arctic Warfare Magnum
   7B. H&K MP5-Navy
   7C. Kalashnikov AK-47

APPENDIX A -- USEFUL LINKS

APPENDIX B -- BOT TRAINING GUIDE (still under construction)

APPENDIX C -- FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS (FAQ)

  i. DISCLAIMER
 ii. CREDITS
iii. ADDENDUM


===============================================================================
                            I. INTRODUCTION
===============================================================================

This guide was written for the Half Life mod Counter Strike. CS needs
no introduction, I believe it is currently the most popular
multiplayer FPS game in the world. So popular that this unofficial
MOD is now an official Half Life product.

Now that Counter Strike is no longer a beta and has been officially
released, I feel the time is ripe to release a new guide to help the
new CS player on the way to fight the veterans on equal terms. Because
of its new-found fame, more and more new players are coming out of
the wood work. Sadly, these new players are woefully underclassed. Veterans
have the advantage of knowledge and experience over the newbie. They're
just too serious and take the fun away from the newbie. So, in the words
of Mega Man X, it's "Time to get serious!" I got serious enough to
write this guide to impart to the newbie one of the two things they need
to get even: knowledge.

Take note that just knowledge of these tricks will not make you an
expert killer overnight! I am sure these techniques, tried, tested
and proven over the years, will increase your playing skill tremendously,
but in the end only practice and experience will make you a truly
formidable CS killing machine. But these teachings, which I have learned
from personal experience and from speaking with those better than me,
are a good foundation to provide you the basic skills that will evolve
into lethal killing techniques.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.a -- How to Use this Guide

Although in theory I believe that clarity and conciseness is more important
than volume, I am very poor in practice. Thus my ramblings are often very
long. Much of what I wish to impart is contained in these long paragraphs,
and should all be read to understand all that I am trying to say.

However, for those with less patience, I have enclosed in "boxes" important
tips that you should pay close attention to. Even for those reading
everything, these enclosed boxes contain the most important points of the
entire passage.

----------------------------------------
| READ THE ENCLOSED TEXT SUCH AS THIS! |
----------------------------------------

After reading through the guide, don't be worried if you didn't understand
some things. You can't be expected to learn everything in one sitting. Most
importantly, you should get some practical experience, preferably right
after a reading. Always remember, practice makes perfect. Also, repetition
is the key to learning. Once you've read this guide, practice. Then read it
again, and practice some more. You will gain more understanding with each
reading and each practice session, in time leading to an eventual culmination
of all the lessons. And with the many excellent CS Bots coming out (like
Count Floyd's POD Bot), there's no excuse for not finding any punching bags
to practice on.

I also include cheesy quotes like this to spice the guide up. Ignore them
as you wish, they're just there for decoration:

"If the student does not wish to gain strength,
he cannot become truly strong."
   -- Hiko Seijuro, Rurouni Kenshin

If the guidelines I stated above seem too demanding, all I can say is that
I'm doing this for your own good. I'm trying to mold you into the best
player you can be. This isn't some overnight miracle guide. You have to
work for it. The desire to be strong must be present, overpowering, enough
for you to overcome all these hardships and strive to reach the goal. If
you are going to be half-hearted about the process, not practicing or
taking the time to understand all the tricks in this treatise, then you
will not become strong.

But in the end, keep in mind that Counter Strike is only a game, and
anyone taking a game too seriously needs to be dragged out and roughed up.

Anyway, to help get the info you need, be sure to check the Table of
Contents and see what looks useful to you. Copy the section of interest and
use your text viewer's find function to skip to the relevant part. I regret
the need to resort to this technique, but my organizational and layout
skills are horrible, as you can see.

===============================================================================
                       II. BASIC FIGHTING ATTITUDE
===============================================================================

"A sword is a deadly weapon. Fighting techniques are what perfect killers."
   -- Himura Kenshin, Rurouni Kenshin (Hecto version)

"A gun is a killing weapon. Fighting techniques are killing techniques.
This will always be true."
   -- Me, paraphrasing the Hitokiri Battousai

Remember that at all times a gun is a deadly weapon. Point it at
someone only if you have the intention to shoot, and potentially
kill. This is moral bullshit which I think people all people should
remember. But also keep in mind that Counter Strike is just a game,
and pointing a gun at someone in this game is done all in the spirit
of fun. No hard feelings! But when you do point that gun at someone,
be sure that you are whole-heartedly focused on aiming at him, and
shooting to kill. Otherwise you will die and you'll be stuck as a
ghost until the round ends.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Mental Focus and Determination are the most important traits of a killer |
----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Keeping your mind focused allows you to react faster, and thus kill
faster. That is why having the right attitude to killing is very
important. You must be whole-heartedly devoted to the act of pointing
your gun at your opponent, and squeezing the trigger. Hesitation will
end up with you dead.

"There is a world of difference in our resolve. Unlike you, I am
staking my life on this!"
  -- Rouge, Soreyuke! Uchuusenkan Yamamoto Youko

As a PC game player, I'm sure you are familiar with the concept of
savegames. However, savegames do gamers a disservice by making them
bad players. Why? Because with a save game, you don't value your
life. You are not "staking your life" on the outcome, because if you
die you can instantly reload. However, consider a game with no save
game, or limited save point functions (like Hitman or Resident Evil).
Because you can't save anywhere, you do your best not to die at any
given point (especially if you're far from a save point). Most people
don't notice this, but this is a crucial factor in forming your
mental condition.

In Counter Strike, you should adopt a more advanced version of this
philosophy. You should play as if your life were depending on it, as
if there were no tomorrow. This will put you in a far better mental
state. You must be determined to win. Although I reiterate that this
is just a game, sometimes you need to adopt a deadly serious attitude
to go beyond your limits. I don't recommend this for friendly play,
but if you really must win, you might have to take the game far more
seriously than you normally would.

In real life, I think this is what they mean by "living life to its
fullest."

"Live your life, Kenshin."
  -- Hiko Seijuro, Rurouni Kenshin.

Regardless, you must always keep your mind running, even while just
standing in one spot. If you slack off even for one second, your reflexes
will drop, and you will be a dead man. I cannot emphasize this enough. A
casual player will probably just take a passing interest while fighting,
may even snooze a bit while camping. These players often end up dead. But
if you seriously want to improve, keep your mind focused. That is the true
key to victory; physical skills like aiming and shooting are secondary
to this basic truth.

"You can win a thousand battles, but you can only lose one!"
  -- Zaknafein, Homeland

I firmly believe that the best fighter is the one who is ALWAYS on
alert; never to let his mind slip at any point. I must confess that I
myself have not achieved this level. Ever wonder why sometimes you
have "hot streaks," or times when you seemingly manage to kill wave
after wave of enemies without taking a hit, but sometimes you can't
kill for the life of you? My theory is that it is a case of mental
control. You achieve a hot streak when your mental focus is at its
highest, and a losing streak when your mind is at a low. While I have
not managed to achieve that highest level of perpetual mental focus,
nor do I know anyone who has, I am sure it is possible. I like to look
at historic warriors who are said never to have lost a single battle --
Miyamoto Musashi, Yagyu Jubei, and so on -- to prove my point.

It might help if you learn to meditate or do some other training to
concentrate and focus your mind. Just a suggestion. Try taking up Zen,
Yoga or some really intense sport if you really want to master Counter
Strike, heheh. ^_^;


===============================================================================
                    III. BASIC COMBAT TRAINING

Now that you're hyped to kill your enemy, you need to learn some
basic concepts regarding player movement in counterstrike.
===============================================================================

3.a -- Camping or Assaulting

Now, in CS, each side, the terrorist and counter terrorists, have
goals to achieve. Depending on the map, one side will usually be
defensive or offensive. Indeed, some maps were meant to be very
defensible for certain sides. Because of this, there are two main
kinds of playing mindsets in CS: camping or assaulting.

A camper is someone who sits tight in a very defensible position.
People often despise campers because they are cowards who know
nothing of honor and would rather hide behind a crate in a dark
corner rather than fight head-on. Well, campers shouldn't let such
taunts bother them; they do what they do to win, and camping is
the way they know best to do this. Campers rely on patience, and
often work in teams because no single person can cover all the
critical points effectively. They wait for the enemy to take the
battle to them. The team taking the defensive position, such as
terrorists in a CS map, often makes use of camping techniques.

An assaulter is someone who charges right into the fray. Whether
the enemies choose to meet him in the same way, or whether they
hide behind a rock is of no consequence; he will charge right in
and make mince meat of his opponent as soon as he comes across him.
They take the battle to the enemy. The team taking the offensive,
like terrorists in a DE map, often go the way of assault.


Now, each mindset has its advantages and disadvantages, but most
people often fall somewhere in between -- they camp when they
must, but they attack when the need arises. However, I've found
that the truly great players who rack up lots of kills are often
true bred in one of either of the two disciplines: the shameless
camper who waits at the end of long corridors with his AWP, or
the relentless attacker blaring away with his MP5.

Campers have the advantage of position, and can stage ambushes.
Defense is always stronger, they say, and campers can pick the
most defensible position and stay there, waiting for the hapless
assaulter to walk by, conveniently exposing their back to the
camper. The drawback is that campers need lots of patience, and
have to hone their reaction time greatly. Camping condones
laziness, which dulls your reflexes. On average, a camper will
develop slower reflexes than an assaulter. The worst part of
camping is that they have little control over the flow of the
game: they lend their destinies to fate, or more appropriately,
to the actions of the assaulters.

Assaulters, on the other hand, have the advantage of proactivity. By
taking matters into their own hands, they call the shots: they do what
they do, when they want to. They can stick together and attack in masse,
while campers tend to spread out for defense. In other words, assaulters
do what suits them best at any particular time. Because of inertia, a car
in motion will accelerate faster than a car at rest. The same principle
applies to people's brains from a physiological standpoint.

------------------------------------------------------------------------
| An assaulter will have a better reaction time than a camper: because |
| they are always on the move, their minds are "in motion," not "at    |
| rest" like a camper.                                                 |
------------------------------------------------------------------------

In theory an assaulter will often shoot first if he and a camper detect
each other at the same time. This has been proven to me time and time
again over the years.

It is up to you to choose what path you really want to take. You
have the potential to rack up the kills no matter what you are,
but keep in mind that the key to racking up those kills and
staying alive depends greatly on how other people behave. The
real secret to CS tactical behavior is anticipating everyone else's
moves, whether they are going to camp or not, and bring the
appropriate tactic to bear.

For instance, if you're planning to camp but all your team mates
are going to assault, you probably won't be getting too many kills.
Likewise, if you go assault, but all your team mates are going to
camp, you'll die in seconds from lack of cover fire. I cannot stress
the importance of team behavior: in a friendly game this is not so
important, but in serious fights like tournaments, or if you're
playing to win, having team tactics is vitally important. But I'll
discuss that some other time, that's an advanced tactic. For now,
just remember that teamplay is crucial in CS.

Knowing your team is not the only thing you need to do; you also
need to know your opponents. If they plan to camp, do you go in
and assault, guns blaring, and hope to succeed? Or do you have to
use the appropriate tactic to breach their defense? Just keep these
things in mind for now, for I will not discuss them at this point.

The important thing now is to recognize the different kind of players
in the game: campers or assaulters. Although I mentioned that pure,
true breds of each are often the better players, the best player will
likely be the wily, cunning player who knows when to be a camper, and
when to be an assaulter. Just keep in mind the basic strengths and
weaknesses of each style, especially with regard to map type.

----------------------------------------------------------
| CAMPERS:                                               |
| Strength: positional advantage (i.e. - sniping points) |
| Weakness: no control over the flow of the battle,      |
|           slower reaction time                         |
|                                                        |
| ASSAULTERS:                                            |
| Strength: control over the battle                      |
|           faster reaction time                         |
| Weakness: prone to backstabbing and sniping            |
----------------------------------------------------------

Learning to be either a good camper or a good assaulter is vital
in CS. If you're defending positions, like hostage areas for
terrorists or bomb sites for counter terrorists, good camping
skill will help. But keep in mind that a swift assault by the
defensive team is both unexpected and can neutralize the enemy's
advance just as effectively as a long camp-out. As a newbie, you
should master one style first. The choice in, the end, lies in
what kind of weapon you prefer: assault weapons or sniper weapons.
As we'll discuss later, what weapon you use greatly influences
your playing style. If you like weapons like the MP5, M4 and
Steyr Aug, then you should learn to be a good assaulter. But if
you prefer weapons like the Arctic, then camping skills will
suit you well.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.b -- Aiming: Accuracy and Recoil

Regardless of whether you camp or assault, the most important
skill you must learn in CS is how to aim. This is the most
crucial part of CS gameplay; if you aim well, your enemy is
toast. If your aim is lousy, you're toast. Simple. Aiming is
equally important no matter what weapon you use, it's just
that different weapons have different aiming nuances. This
will all be discussed in the individual weapon sections.

There are two very important factors to keep in mind when aiming:
accuracy and recoil. Weapons have different ratings for accuracy
and recoil.

ACCURACY
--------
Accuracy determines whether the bullet will go to the spot you're
pointing at. You can tell a gun's accuracy by the size of the
crosshair. The tighter the crosshair, the more accurate the gun.
Your bullet will tend to go in the middle radius of the crosshair's
lines. In addition, the more you shoot, the wider the crosshair
becomes, decreasing your accuracy.

RECOIL
------
Recoil is how much your gun will buck away from where you're pointing
each time you fire a shot. The stronger the recoil, the harder it is
to control the gun.

Recoil is always constant for each weapon, but accuracy is
affected by many things. Four things affect accuracy:

1.) Movement
2.) Jumping
3.) Swimming
4.) Ladders

-----------------------------------------
| While moving, your accuracy goes down |
-----------------------------------------

The amount by which it decreases depends on the weapon, but in general
if you want your bullets to go where you aim, you should shoot while
standing still. While you are jumping in the air, accuracy is virtually
non-existent.

------------------------------
| Do NOT jump while shooting |
------------------------------

Unless you are using a very accurate weapon and are right next to your
opponent, you will likely not hit your opponent. The same goes for
swimming and being on ladders.

-------------------------------
| Do NOT shoot while swimming |
-------------------------------

Swimming is not being in knee-deep water, swimming is when your feet are
no longer on the floor, and your 3D model is doing a breast stroke. Do
NOT shoot while swimming and expect to hit anything, unless you are right
next to the target.

-------------------------------
| Do NOT shoot while climbing |
-------------------------------

Finally, NEVER shoot while on a ladder unless there is an emergency.
You will most likely not hit your target. If you must shoot, try to get
off the ladder as soon as possible before shooting, or make sure your
target is at point-blank range.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.b1 - The Rule of Aiming

The general rule of thumb when aiming is simple.

-----------------------------------------
| Aim for the neck area of an opponent. |
-----------------------------------------

This gives you the greatest trade off of ease to hit and damage. The
mid-section of the body is the easiest target, but you do more damage
shooting the neck area. The most important reason to aim for this
part, though, is to increase your chances of doing a head shot. A single
shot to the head  is lethal for almost all guns, except those using 9mm
ammo. You could try aiming for the head, but this is harder and is
something you should focus on only after you have gained a lot of
experience. Head shot techniques will be elaborated on later.

For now, keep in mind the effect of recoil. Because of it your first bullet
may hit its target, but the next ones won't. This is very important in CS,
as one shot is often not enough to kill a fully-armored opponent. Another
bonus to shooting the neck area is that recoil tends to push assault rifles
and submachine guns upward. Thus, your first shot may hit the neck area, but
the next shots might be head shots.

Just keep in mind the effects of accuracy and recoil, and you will
be on the road to mastering aiming.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.c -- Basic Shooting Styles

The next consideration to learning the basic skill of aiming is that
there are two basic methods of shooting: auto-fire and single-fire.
People usually adopt one of these two methods due to their weapons;
someone using an MP5 will more likely use auto-fire, while someone
using an Arctic is forced to go single-fire.

Auto-fire pertains to shooting at a target repeatedly as long as the
ammo holds out. Single-fire is shooting single shots to hit the
opponent, often done while sniping. Someone going assault usually
utilizes auto-fire.

I've noticed that most people prefer either auto-fire or single-fire.
Those that prefer auto usually go assault and master the MP5, Carbine,
Steyr Aug, or Commando. Those that go single-fire become masters of the
lethal Arctic Sniper Rifle. Each style has its strengths, and you would
do well to specialize in one style. Once you've gained familiarity with
one style, you can experiment with the other.

--------------------------------------------------------------
| At first, pick your style, auto or single, and stick to it |
--------------------------------------------------------------

AUTO-FIRE

Auto-fire gives you a higher chance of hitting the opponent, but this
is due to quantity and not quality. The more shots you fire, the more
chances you have of hitting. But each individual bullet has less
chance of hitting because of recoil. Most of the bigger guns let you
engage in auto-fire just by holding the fire button down. Pistols,
which have no automatic trigger, must be fired with rapid-succession
presses to achieve an auto-fire effect.

Auto-fire is useful in the the thick of the battle, speed is often of
the essence, he who pulls the trigger first will hit the enemy first.

However, do not be trigger happy! Because of recoil, many of your
succeeding shots will be less likely to hit the target. ALWAYS aim
carefully before pulling the trigger. Most beginners will aim in the
general direction of the target, and even before the crosshair is at
the target, will pull the trigger and never let go. This is, frankly,
a waste of ammo and a good way to get killed.

------------------------------------------------------------------
| Always put the target in the sights BEFORE pulling the trigger |
------------------------------------------------------------------

This way, you won't waste the most crucial shot -- the first one,
which has the highest likelihood of hitting. Succeeding shots
have less chance of hitting due to recoil, and it is not uncommon
for newbies to miss their target completely by just spraying their
entire clip in a haphazard manner.


SINGLE-FIRE

Single-fire is used by the more skilled as a means of precision
sniping. It is the intelligent way to get head shots. It is very
useful to keep recoil under control, making sure your shots keep
themselves on target.

Because of recoil, some veterans prefer shooting in single-fire
mode, especially when using high-recoil guns like the AK-47 and
the Para machine gun.  By shooting just single bullets instead of
sprays, one can minimize the effects of recoil.

------------------------------------------------------
| Shooting single-fire reduces the effects of recoil |
------------------------------------------------------

All guns can be fired in single-fire, some harder than most. Pistols,
the combat shotgun and sniper rifles are easy to fire in single shots.
The assault rifles and SMGs, though need practice and a light tap on
the fire button to shoot in single-fire.

Also, single fire generally fires as fast as you can click. Of course,
the gun will still limit how fast you can fire, but in some cases you
can fire faster than the normal auto-fire trigger would allow. A good
example would be the Sig 550 Commando. The trade-off, of course, is
that you will spend some concentration on clicking the button furiously,
rather than on whatever else you're doing (like aiming at the enemy or
moving).

BURST-FIRE

Aside from the two basic styles of firing, there is a third, which
is a sort of hybrid of the two: burst-fire. Shooting in bursts of
around 3 bullets is a favored method for sniping by some, because
it allows them a better chance of hitting a target, without
sacrificing much accuracy from recoil. To achieve burst fire, use
a touch similar to single-fire, only hold the fire button slightly
longer. Of course, pistols and sniper rifles can't achieve this,
except for the Glock which has a special burst-fire option.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.d -- Range

After learning to aim, you need to apply your aiming skills to four
basic divisions of range: point blank, close, medium, and long. Unit
of measurement for distance is hard to define, so I will talk in terms
of landmarks on a map. Since DE_DUST is perhaps the most well-known
map, I will use it to approximate the distances. These aren't the
exact distances I prescribe for range, but are close enough.

From the primary bomb-site (the one that isn't the CT terrorist base),
imagine yourself at the edge of the map across the double doors. The
bombsite is between you and the double doors.

From this point to the bombsite is basically CLOSE range.
From the bombsite to the double doors is MEDIUM range.
Anything beyond the doubledoors is LONG range.
POINT BLANK is right next to you, close enough to use a knife.

---------------------------------------------------
| Remember that range affects your accuracy a lot |
---------------------------------------------------

At point blank, you will always hit your target as long as he is in front
of you, so accuracy and recoil is not a problem. Shotguns are lethal at
this range.

At close range, only the sniper rifles will have any real trouble
hitting the mark under conditions of low accuracy (moving or being
on a ladder). This is the maximum effective range of shotguns.

Medium range is basically the maximum range for pistols and sub
machine guns to fire accurately and still have a good chance of
being on target. Shotguns will still do minimal damage due to the
spreading of ammo.

Long range is the domain of rifles and machine guns only. While it
is still possible to hit using pistols and SMGs, it is far less
likely.


It is important to note that auto-fire works well from point-blank
to close range, but from medium to long range single-fire will more
likely net you a kill. Also, using single-fire in close range is
best left only to the highly-skilled, because otherwise the faster
trigger finger of auto-fire will likely cut you to ribbons first.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.e -- Damage: Ammo and Location

The final important basic consideration is with the amount of
damage you deal out. Damage largely depends on two things: ammo
and location. Different ammo types do different amounts of damage.
The amount of damage a gun does depends almost entirely on its
ammo, not on the gun itself. Some guns do more or less damage
than others using the same ammo type, but in general damage
is governed by ammo.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.e1 - Ammo

These are the strengths of the different ammo types in Counter Strike,
from weakest to strongest. Take note that this is by no means definitive,
I did not check with the CS team or read a guide about them. Nor did I
interview gun experts. Instead I relied on a much simpler method:
I computed ammo to cost ratios! I honestly have no idea if this is
accurate, but it seems to fit with my experience.

Here is the order, from weakest to strongest:

Cost Ratio     Ammo
--------------------------------------------
(0.66)      9mm Parabellum
(1.00)      5.7x28mm
(1.00)      .338 Lapua Magnum (P90 Round)
(2.00)      5.56mm NATO
(2.08)      .45 ACP
(2.67)      7.62mm NATO
(3.84)      .357 Sig
(5.71)      .50 Action Express
(8.13)      *12 gauge
(12.5)      .338 Lapua Magnum (Sniper Round)
--------------------------------------------

* - the 12 gauge buckshot used in shotguns is a special case.
Since it is basically an explosion of buckshot, it dissipates
the farther it goes. In close range, the highly concentrated
buckshot can do more damage than a 7.62 round, but from mid
range it only does about as much as a 9mm, and at long range
it does next to nothing.

Anyway, stronger ammo means that it will do more damage and possibly
punch through armor better, but that also means its recoil is probably
stronger.

Also, there is one gun which is considerably stronger than others
which use the same ammo type: the Arctic Magnum Sniper Rifle. It
uses the same ammo as the FN P90, but unlike the P90 which needs
multiple shots to kill, an Arctic will kill an opponent in one
shot, no matter where it hits. Although they are the same kind of
round, they are prepared differently; the rounds for the AWP come
in these nasty, long, pointed cylinders maximized for long-range
combat. That, in addition to the architecture of the rifle, make
the difference in killing power. However, the truth is that Sierra
messed up somewhere and assigned the wrong ammo to the P90.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.e2 - Location

Now, where you hit your opponent is also important: hitting your
opponent's arms and legs will do minimal damage. Hitting his body
will do moderate damage, while hitting the head will do intense,
if not lethal, damage.

As far as I can tell, there are three basic locations on the
terrorist or counterterrorist body for determining damage:
the head, the body, and the extremities.

HEAD AREA - this is the smallest, hardest to hit area, but also
takes the most damage. Most guns kill an unarmored, healthy head
in one blow.

BODY AREA - this refers to the entire torso. It is the easiest to
hit, and damage is moderate. Thus, armor should usually be bought.

EXTREMITIES - this refers to your arms and legs. While not exactly
easy to hit, people tend to hit the legs in particular when shooting
from a different elevation. Damage here is minimal.

I am not sure if these locations are entirely accurate, but that's
what I noticed from experience. Now, I mentioned armor.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.e3 - Armor

Armor helps you absorb damage. Depending on the integrity of
your armor, it will decrease the amount of damage you take from
certain types of ammo. This is the most important thing to
remember about ammo types; many of them cannot pierce through
kevlar effectively.

9mm ammo and 12 gauge buckshot are notoriously weak against
armor, and do minimal damage to a person wearing armor. The
same goes for the .357 Sig and .45 ACP rounds.

5.7x28mm and .338 Lapua Magnum have modest penetration against
armor, but when the .338 is used in the Arctic, armor is
meaningless.

The .50 Action Express is excellent against armor, as well as
the 5.56 and 7.62. In the former's case, however, I strongly
suspect it is because of the rifle muzzle velocity gun and not
really the ammo itself. It is hard to measure, because FMJ and
JHP do not exist in CS.

Armor comes in two varieties: a vest which protects the body
area only, and a helmet which protects both body and head.
However, when you shoot at the neck area of an opponent, you
are more likely to hit his head. Headshots are most feared;
always buy full armor if you can afford it! It's the only
real defense aside from cowering behind a rock.

--------------------------------------------------
| Never skimp on armor. Buy the vest and helmet. |
--------------------------------------------------

Many novice and even some intermediate players don't buy
armor, thinking it's a waste of money. They often complain
that they die almost instantly anyway with or without it.
Believe me, armor makes a HUGE difference. When your dodging
skills have increased and you are fighting on more or less
equal terms, you will notice how much armor keeps your health
up. And when fighting very accurate shooters who aim for you
head, that helmet is pure gold in determining who will win
the battle.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.f -- Stopping Power

Another important consideration which I forgot to mention earlier
(thanks Paul for reminding me) is stopping power. Have you ever
noticed how, during a gunfight you thought you had your enemy
dead in your sights, but suddenly you get hit and your gun shoots
up, ruining your aim? Or how, while trying to run for cover, you
are suddenly hit and you stop dead in your tracks, unable to dodge,
and thus a sitting duck?

These effects are attributed to something called Stopping Power.
It is a very important tactical tool which makes killing an opponent
without taking casualties easier. In this case, who gets the first draw,
has a better chance of winning.

Most guns have some level of stopping power. Some, though, have
better stopping power than others. The stronger the stopping power,
the longer the opponent takes to recover, and the more off his aim
will be. It's hard to pinpoint the exact levels of stopping power
are for each gun. The stopping power usually depends on the ammo
type. I have made a rough estimate, based on CS experience, but
since it's difficult to ascertain, I also relied on some real-world
knowledge of what ammo is supposed to have strong stopping power.

(Strongest)
12 gauge buckshot/7.62mm NATO
.50 Action Express/.45 ACP
9mm Parabellum
5.56mm NATO/.357 Sig
5.7x28mm/.338 Lapua Magnum (P90)
(Weakest)

While the 8.6 arctic sniper round probably has great stopping power,
it is irrelevant because one hit kills, no? Also, take note that
successive shots have a greater cumulative effect of stopping the
enemy. Thus, guns with a high rate of fire tend to have more
effective stopping power than slower guns with better ammo.

I'm not really sure about this table. Just keep in mind that ammo
with strong armor piercing ability tend to have stronger stopping
power -- this is because the impact is absorbed by the body,
instead of going through it. Regardless, all guns have some sort
of stopping power, and the differences between all the guns is
minimal at best. In other words, even the worst gun has pretty
good stopping power, enough to stun anyone as much as necessary.

===============================================================================
                          IV. THE WEAPONS
===============================================================================

Now that you have a basic concept of recoil and accuracy, you are ready
to learn about the weapons. There are six basic kinds of weapons in CS:
pistols, shotguns, submachine guns, assault rifles, sniper rifles, and
machine guns. Each have different ratings for recoil, accuracy,
encumbrance, as well as different ammo types.

As a player, you can have two guns with you at most: one primary weapon,
and one secondary weapon. Only pistols are allowed for secondary weapons,
everything else is a primary.

Each gun is detailed as follows:

NAME: The name of the gun (alternative v1.0 name) [Quick Buy Number]
COST: How much the gun plus a full clip costs
AMMO: The kind of ammo the gun uses
CLIP/MAX: The size of the clip/maximum ammo you can carry

CLIP COST: How much one clip costs (number of bullets per clip)
ACCURACY: High, medium or low, high means very accurate
MOVE ACC: High, medium or low, how accurate the gun is while moving.
RECOIL: High, medium, or low, high means strong recoil
RATE OF FIRE: Fast, medium, or slow. The speed between shots.
AUTOFIRE: Yes or no, whether the gun can engage autofire or not
SPECIAL OPTION: What happens when you press the special weapon function.
NOTES: Other things you about the weapon, and my tips and advice.

SPECIAL OPTIONS:

1.) Sniper Scope

     Sniper scopes let you zoom in on a far away target. There are two
     zoom sizes: 2x or 4x. I just call them that; I don't know if they
     really make your vision twice or four times as close. It's something
     I carried over from my Action Quake days.

     Activating the scope increases movement accuracy, virtually removing
     any inaccuracies from moving and sidestepping. However, it also tends
     to decrease rate of fire. Further, using the scope warps your
     perception, making movement and aiming slightly tricky.

2.) Silencer

     Silencers remove muzzle flash and suppress the noise from firing a
     shot. This makes them good for ambushing in dark conditions. There
     is a drawback, though. I am not 100% sure what the drawback is, but
     it has something to do with decreasing your accuracy or damage, or
     maybe both.

     Realistically speaking, a silencer is supposed to reduce the velocity
     of your bullet. I am not sure how this is reflected in CS, but my
     tests show that your accuracy, especially at long ranges, is
     significantly lowered. I do not know for sure if it weakens the gun's
     attack power, but it is possible. I just haven't been able to test it.

Take note that in v1.0 of CS Sierra, for some stupid reason, decided to
rename the guns with some weird, unknown, bogus names. I include them
here for those of you who only joined from v1.0 up, to clear any confusion
as to nomenclature. I am told you can edit the TITLES.TXT file in your CS
directory which corresponds to the weapon names, allowing you to
change them back to what they're supposed to be. Did someone actually
buy the rights to the names of these guns? How come the Ingram was
left out? Heeeee.....

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.a -- Pistols

These are your choices available for your secondary weapon. It is crucial for
your survival when you run out of ammo and do not have time to reload. Pistols
have often have poor accuracy at range but are very accurate while moving.
When using a pistol, in close range, be sure to side step a lot. Pistols also
reload very quickly and are very light, allowing you to move very fast. The
main disadvantage of the pistol is that, except for the Glock, they all have
single-fire triggers. This means that you have to press furiously to
achieve an auto-fire effect.

When choosing your secondary, be sure to select a weapon that complements
your primary. Determine this by weapon fighting-style. Primaries that
mostly use auto-fire shooting should have a pistol with a large clip
size and fast rate of fire (like the Glock or Five Seven). Those that rely
on single-fire shooting should get strong ammo pistols that follow suit
(like the USP or Desert Eagle).

NAME: H&K USP .45 Tactical (K&M .45) [1-1]
COST: $500
AMMO: .45 ACP
CLIP/MAX: 12/48
CLIP COST: $25 (12)
ACCURACY: Medium
MOVE ACC: High
RECOIL: Low
RATE OF FIRE: Fast
AUTOFIRE: No
SPECIAL OPTION: Silencer
NOTES: This is the standard issue CT gun. Counter Terrorists have the weapon
advantage at the start because of this gun. With the .45 round, it is very
strong, and is pretty good at medium range for sniping. A few shots is
enough to kill anyone, even in full-armor. Using the silencer suppresses
shot and muzzle fire, making you almost undetectable in low-visibility areas,
but the trade-off is that you lose some accuracy. It's a trade-off you have
to weigh for yourself. I personally prefer going without the silencer. Anyway,
the USP is the average handgun to which all the other pistols are compared.

NAME: Glock 18 Select Fire (9x19mm) [1-2]
COST: $400
AMMO: 9mm Parabellum
CLIP/MAX: 20/100
CLIP COST: $20 (20)
ACCURACY: Low
MOVE ACC: High
RECOIL: Low
RATE OF FIRE: Fast
AUTOFIRE: No
SPECIAL OPTION: Burst-Fire Mode
NOTES: The default weapon of terrorists. Unfortunately for them, it
is hands down the worst pistol in the game. It is weak, and shares ammo with
the MP5. The gun has two saving graces: it has a useful burst-fire mode and
a clip-size of 20. The burst-mode is useful for sniping, but forces you to
aim carefully as your firing rate suddenly drops. At close range, burst fire
is very difficult to use unless you have the accurate aiming usually
reserved for shotgun experts. The large clip size may be appealing for people
who prefer auto-fire style attacks, but with v1.0 the five-seven became
available. It has the same clip size, is more accurate, and stronger. The
Glock suddenly became a useless gun. The only reason to use it is because it
is free for Terrorists.

NAME: Desert Eagle .50 AE (Nighthawk) [1-3]
COST: $650
AMMO: .50 Action Express
CLIP/MAX: 7/35
CLIP COST: $40 (7)
ACCURACY: Low
MOVE ACC: High
RECOIL: Medium
RATE OF FIRE: Medium
AUTOFIRE: No
SPECIAL OPTION: None
NOTES: This is my personal handgun of choice. With the .50 ammo, it is the
most powerful handgun in the game, heck is more powerful than most of the
primary weapons. Its biggest downside is that it has a clip size of seven, so
make those shots count. Fortunately, it reloads fast so as long as you are
going one on one, you can usually reload after killing one opponent. The
Desert Eagle is also surprisingly accurate at medium to long range, probably
due to the strong caliber of the ammo. It is capable of making headshots with
surprising ease even at such a distance. To top it off, this is the only pistol
capable of punching through thin walls, like the rifles. Most people who have
mastered the single-fire firing technique often prefer this handgun. The only
other problem aside from the small clip is the slow rate of fire; the slowest
among all the pistols. But with its power, who cares?

NAME: SIG P228 (228) [1-4]
COST: $600
AMMO: .357 Sig
CLIP/MAX: 13/52
CLIP COST: $50 (13)
ACCURACY: Medium
MOVE ACC: High
RECOIL: Low
RATE OF FIRE: Fast
AUTOFIRE: No
SPECIAL OPTION: None
NOTES: This gun is similar to the USP pistol, but better in practically every
aspect. It is the second strongest handgun, second only to the Desert Eagle,
but with a bigger clip size. This gun is also more accurate than the USP at
short ranges. The only thing the USP has over this gun really is long range
sniping. At long range, this gun tends not to be as accurate as the USP.
Anyway, I don't find it worth the cost for a CT agent to purchase, as the
improvements are marginal at best. It would be a good gun for a terrorist
to buy in the first round, though. I actually had a long stint using this gun
as my main secondary weapon; but I missed the power of the Eagle in the end.

NAME: Dual Beretta 96G (.40 Dual Elites) [1-5]
COST: $1000
AMMO: 9mm Parabellum
CLIP/MAX: 30/120
CLIP COST: $20 (30)
ACCURACY: High
MOVE ACC: High
RECOIL: Medium
RATE OF FIRE: Fast
AUTOFIRE: No
SPECIAL OPTION: None
NOTES: This is actually two handguns, one in each hand. This option really
reminds me of a cheap alternative to the MP5. They are practically the same,
except that they fire slightly slower, have no autofire option, and are VERY
SLOW to reload. However, considering that they are only $1000 and are a
secondary weapon, they are a top-choice for many as secondary weapons, as they
can serve as primaries, like an MP5. If you belong to the auto-fire rather than
the single-fire school, this will likely be your secondary weapon of choice.
One weird thing about this weapon, though. It's supposed to be very accurate,
I think as accurate as the Carbine. But the shots don't go where they're
supposed to. The two-hand option affects the aim a bit; the left gun shoots
slightly to the left, the right to the right. Its main drawback, though, is the
horrendous reload time. Also, only terrorists can purchase it. All in all, the
Beretta is basically just a more accurate Glock, but slightly stronger.

NAME: Five Seven [1-6]
COST: $750
AMMO: 5.7x28mm
CLIP/MAX: 20/100
CLIP COST: $50 (50)
ACCURACY: High
MOVE ACC: High
RECOIL: Low
RATE OF FIRE: Fast
AUTOFIRE: No
SPECIAL OPTION: None
NOTES: This new gun that came out in v1.0 is fast contending to be my favored
handgun. It has stronger ammo, has a large clip size, is very accurate, it's
almost perfect! The biggest boon is its sniping ability: this handgun was
designed with the single-fire sniper in mind -- it is about as accurate as
the M4 carbine at long range! That's not to understate its close combat
capacity: the fast rate of fire and large clip make it quite effective, and
it seems to work well against armored opponents. The only reason I still
prefer the Desert Eagle is because it is infinitely more powerful, cheaper,
and can be bought by both sides. The Five Seven is CT only.

TRIVIA: This gun is so new that, as of this writing, it has not had any
real combat experience! Gun experts have no definitive data on its actual
combat capabilities.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.b -- Shotguns

Shotguns are a very distinc weapon-type which only specialists should use.
These are not the same shotguns in Action Quake; these are very specific in
use: close combat. They are very light, and encumber you only about a bit
more than a pistol. They are lethal in close combat, but next to useless at
medium or greater range. One of the nifty features of the shotguns is the
ability to fire immediately after reloading just one shell. This split-
second difference could mean the difference between life and death in certain
situations where you run out of ammo but suddenly need to fire again.

NAME: Benneli M3 Super90 (Leone 12 Gauge Super) [2-1]
COST: $1700
AMMO: 12 gauge
CLIP/MAX: 8/32
CLIP COST: $65 (8)
ACCURACY: Medium
MOVE ACC: High
RECOIL: High
RATE OF FIRE: Slow
AUTOFIRE: No
SPECIAL OPTION: None
NOTES: This is a true specialist weapon, intended for those who have mastered
the art of single-fire headshots. At close range or closer, one shot is enough
to kill, provided you aimed for the general neck area. Unfortunately, the slow
rate of fire means that, in most instances, you get only one chance to kill
your opponent, if you miss the first shot, your enemy with an MP5 or other
auto-fire gun will likely mow you down before you get a second chance. Aside
from the one-shot kill potential at close range, this weapon has no other use.
The buck shot scatters too much even at medium range, making it useless as a
sniping tool, and it only really works against one opponent because of the
slow rate of fire.

NAME: Benneli XM1014 (Leone YG1265 Auto Shotgun) [2-2]
COST: $3000
AMMO: 12 gauge
CLIP/MAX: 7/32
CLIP COST: $65 (8)
ACCURACY: Medium
MOVE ACC: High
RECOIL: Medium
RATE OF FIRE: Fast
AUTOFIRE: Yes
SPECIAL OPTION: None
NOTES: This works almost like M3, except that it has a slightly smaller clip
and has auto-fire ability! Because of the auto-fire capability, it is possible
to take on multiple opponents at close range with this gun. It also means you
have more leeway for missing the first shot, as it is fast enough to fire
again before you get plastered. However, for some reason the M3 is slightly
more powerful than the XM1014; on occasion I have hit a person straight on the
head with this gun, yet he did not die, whereas with the M3 they always die.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.c -- Submachine Gun

Submachine guns (SMGs) are great close range weapons. They are fairly light,
heavier than a shotgun but lighter than most rifles, and are usually very
accurate at close to medium range, even while moving. They are also relatively
cheap. Their only real drawback is that they often do not have as much
penetrating power as the real rifles, meaning armor does a good job of
stopping them. Also, they tend to lose accuracy at long range because of
shorter barrels and weaker ammo rounds designed for fast emptying up-close.

NAME: H&K MP5-Navy (SMG) [3-1]
COST: $1500
AMMO: 9mm Parabellum
CLIP/MAX: 30/120
CLIP COST: $20 (30)
ACCURACY: Medium
MOVE ACC: High
RECOIL: Low
RATE OF FIRE: Fast
AUTOFIRE: Yes
SPECIAL OPTION: None
NOTES: H&K's MP5 is the weapon of choice of most counter-terrorist agents both
in CS and in the real world. Why? It's cheap, is remarkably accurate, handles
perfectly, has a killer rate of fire, and reloads like a dream. Its only real
drawback is the poor penetration power of its 9mm round. Other than that,
it's perfect for assaults, and is also pretty good for sniping at medium range.
In fact, recoil and accuracy are good enough that you can snipe in large bursts
with this gun. Most people train getting headshots with the MP5 by simply
aiming in the general head area and letting go. And they get results, too. This
is the weapon of choice of most players proficient in the auto-fire technique.
This gun is the biggest reason why you should always buy a full suit of kevlar
every round: most of your opponents are likely to be using it. This is widely
held by many in the CS community as the best gun for close combat. It is the
standard from which I compare all other guns.

NAME: Steyr Tactical Machine Pistol (Schmidt MP) [3-2]
COST: $1250
AMMO: 9mm Parabellum
CLIP/MAX: 30/120
CLIP COST: $20 (30)
ACCURACY: Medium
MOVE ACC: High
RECOIL: Low
RATE OF FIRE: Fast
AUTOFIRE: Yes
SPECIAL OPTION: None
NOTES: This is a CT only gun which is basically a cheaper alternative to the
MP5. It works almost exactly the same as the MP5, and is cheaper to boot.
People who love the MP5 will feel right at home using this gun. There are a
few minor differences. First, the MP5 is slightly more accurate at range,
while the TMP is more accurate up close. Second, the Steyr TMP has a slightly
faster rate of fire (I think it has the fastest rate of fire in the game).
Lastly, and most importantly, the Steyr seems to do less damage than an MP5.
Still overall, it's a great bargain at only $1250, and if you're a CT and
love using the MP5, you might consider changing to this to save money.

NAME: FN P90 (ES C90) [3-3]
COST: $2350
AMMO: .338 Lapua Magnum
CLIP/MAX: 50/100
CLIP COST: 50$ (50)
ACCURACY: Medium
MOVE ACC: HIGH
RECOIL: Medium
RATE OF FIRE: Fast
AUTOFIRE: Yes
SPECIAL OPTION: None
NOTES: It has been called the porcshe of SMGs, and with its sleek look and
lightning fast firing rate, it deserves the name. This gun can shred opponents
in seconds, at close range anyway. It is the most powerful of the SMGs, capable
of doing major damage in a very short span of time. This damage, though, I
believe is due to the ammo type: the P90 is supposed to be good against armor
in real life, so I think that this is the one SMG in CS that does reasonably
well against armor, compared to the other SMGs. Its only drawback is that
it is quite inaccurate while moving compared to the other SMGs, and does not
have the range of the true assault rifles. And of course, it's quite expensive
for an SMG. Sniping with this gun at long range is difficult, but possible,
provided you use single-fire shots. However, this gun was not made for sniping,
 and shooting auto-fire at even just close to medium range will already give
you a very poor hit ratio. All in all, this is a good cheap alternative to the
assault rifles, minus the sniping capability. The good part is that it actually
handles better while moving than most assault rifles, and can win a side-
stepping match against the bigger guns most of the time. Best used for close
combat, but the MP5 still rules in that category, I think. MP5 is cheaper, too.

TRIVIA: I have no idea how a .338 round fits in the P90; this thing is
supposed to use the 5.7 ammo type.

NAME: Ingram MAC-10  [3-4]
COST: $1400
AMMO: .45 ACP
CLIP/MAX: 30/96
CLIP COST: $25 (12)
ACCURACY: Low
MOVE ACC: Medium
RECOIL: High
RATE OF FIRE: Fast
AUTOFIRE: Yes
SPECIAL OPTION: None
NOTES: The Mac-10 is a very volatile, uncontrollable weapon that can only be
bought by terrorists. It is stronger than the MP5, but the recoil is also much
stronger. Now, since I finished up with the MP5 recently, I've been playing
with the Ingram more. I'm learning a lot of new stuff about this weapon! First
off, I realized that this gun has a much faster firing rate than I previously
realized. This ups its rating in my book tremendously. Still, the lack of
accuracy and control still reduce its usefulness. It's still a weapon which
you should buy when you're on a budget but need stopping power. Perhaps the
worst aspect of this weapon is that you need to buy a whole lot of ammo, as
each purchase of ammo gives you only 12 shots for $25 bucks. Not a good deal.
When you consider how much ammo you have to buy, the MP5 is still cheaper.
I like to think of this gun as a mini-AK, except that it doesn't have the
accuracy and power that make the AK-47 a great gun. All in all, this is the
stronger alternative to the MP5, minus the controllability.

NAME: H&K UMP45 (K&M UMP45) [3-5]
COST: $1700
AMMO: .45 ACP
CLIP/MAX: 25/100
CLIP COST: $25 (12)
ACCURACY: High
MOVE ACC: Medium
RECOIL: Low
RATE OF FIRE: Medium
AUTOFIRE: Yes
SPECIAL OPTION: None
NOTES: This recent addition in v1.0 is a pretty interesting gun. It is like an
MP5, except that its rate of fire is slow and it has a smaller clip. The boon,
though, is that it has better ammo (.45) and is more accurate, making it easier
to snipe at medium range. However, the gun still stops short of being truly
effective at long range, as is the case with all SMGs. All in all, it is quite
worth its price tag, although it is not as good as the MP5 for close-range
combat. Its slow rate of fire makes it hard to use at close-range. Its real
use is for mid to long range sniping, while doubling as a decent alternative
for close combat. This is easily the slowest among all the SMGs for rate of
fire. Perhaps my biggest beef with this gun is that, like the Mac10, it only
buys ammo in increments of 12, making initial setup harder. In conclusion, I
like to compare this to the AK-47: it's a mini-AK with better close combat
handling, but weaker attack power.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.d -- Rifles

Rifles are the real weapons in this game. They are expensive, but worth the
price. They are very powerful, capable of tearing through opponents in just
a few shots, can punch through walls and armor, and are very accurate for
long-range fire. They usually pay for this in recoil, but all in all these
guns are the lifeblood of many terrorists and counter terrorists. All rifles
can pierce through walls and other obstacles to some extent.

NAME: AK-47 (CV-47) [4-1]
COST: $2500
AMMO: 7.62 NATO
CLIP/MAX: 30/90
CLIP COST: $80 (30)
ACCURACY: High
MOVE ACC: Medium
RECOIL: High
RATE OF FIRE: Medium
AUTOFIRE: Yes
SPECIAL OPTION: None
NOTES: There are two big reasons why people like playing terrorist: the AK-47
and the Sig Commando. This is my personal terrorist-only gun of choice. The
cheap price tag of the AK, combined with its incredible power and accuracy,
made it the bad-ass assault gun back in the early days. Unfortunately, since
beta 7 this gun was toned down by making extremely heavy, slowing your movement
considerably. Still, the AK is a great gun. It is very accurate, making long
range sniping a breeze. Its 7.62 round is so powerful, you will be killing
many enemies with just a few shots. This is also one of the best guns to get
headshots. The only real drawback of this gun, aside from its weight, is its
powerful recoil. You cannot afford to use auto-fire with this gun; most of your
shots will miss. That is why this gun is not really suited for assault, it is
more of a mid-range sniping assault gun. Used in conjunction with single-fire
sniping techniques, this is a very lethal specialist's gun, suitable for
almost all combat conditions.

NAME: Sig SG-552 Commando (Krieg 552 Commando) [4-2]
COST: $3500
AMMO: 5.56mm NATO
CLIP/MAX: 30/90
CLIP COST: $60 (30)
ACCURACY: Medium
MOVE ACC: High
RECOIL: Medium
RATE OF FIRE: Medium
AUTOFIRE: Yes
SPECIAL OPTION: 2x Sniper Scope
NOTES: The Commando is a terrorist-only gun, and is arguably one of the best
in the game. It combines accuracy and power with a 2x sniper scope, allowing
you to pick off targets who haven't even seen you yet. It is the counterpart
of the CT's Steyr Aug, over which it has the advantage of faster reload time,
less recoil and better handling. Its drawback is that it is expensive, and
rate of fire is slightly slower than that of a Steyr Aug. Still, overall,
this gun is worth its price easily.

NAME: Colt M4A1 Carbine (Maverick M4A1 Carbine) [4-3]
COST: $3100
AMMO: 5.56mm NATO
CLIP/MAX: 30/90
CLIP COST: $60 (30)
ACCURACY: High
MOVE ACC: High
RECOIL: Low
RATE OF FIRE: Medium
AUTOFIRE: Yes
SPECIAL OPTION: Silencer
NOTES: This is a counter-terrorist only gun, the direct counterpart of the
AK-47. It is easily the best all-around gun in the game. It has all the
handling of the MP5, but is more accurate and powerful, making it easier to
kill opponents close up and afar. Its only drawback is that it is a bit more
expensive than most SMGs, but still is cheaper than most other rifles. It is
also slightly slower at firing than an MP5, and has slightly stronger kickback,
but not by much, still getting a low recoil rating. This gun basically combines
the sniping capability of the AK-47 with the assault handling ability of the
P5, in a very light, maneuverable package. My only qualm with this gun is that
it lost its 2x scope in favor of a silencer when the Steyr Aug came out around
Beta 6. It is my all-around weapon of choice.

NAME: Steyr AUG (Bullpup) [4-4]
COST: $3500
AMMO: 5.56mm NATO
CLIP/MAX: 30/90
CLIP COST: $60 (30)
ACCURACY: High
MOVE ACC: Medium
RECOIL: High
RATE OF FIRE: High
AUTOFIRE: Yes
SPECIAL OPTION: 2x Sniper Scope
NOTES: This counter-terrorist only gun is the direct equivalent of the
terrorist's Commando. Many people play CTs because of this gun. It is a great
gun, although I personally find the Commando better. However, this gun has its
merits. It has the smallest crosshair for any gun, and coupled with its strong
ammo round and the sniper scope, suggests that it is the most accurate gun in
the game. Further, the rate of fire is one of the fastest in the game. Its
main drawback is its powerful recoil and very slow reloading time. It does not
handle as well as the MP5, or even the Commando in close range while moving.
However, it seems to have a slightly faster rate of fire. Overall, it is a
good gun which can kill many opponents at most ranges pretty fast, and its
sniper scope really helps out in those long range situations. If only recoil
wasn't such a problem, this might have been my favorite assault rifle.

NAME: Steyr Scout (Schmidt Scout) [4-5]
COST: $2750
AMMO: 7.62 NATO
CLIP/MAX: 10/60
CLIP COST: $80 (30)
ACCURACY: Medium
MOVE ACC: High
RECOIL: Medium
RATE OF FIRE: Slow
AUTOFIRE: No
SPECIAL OPTION: 4x Sniper Scope
NOTES: This gun is for the sniper on a budget. It is the cheapest of the sniper
guns, and is very limited in use. It is only really effective at long range,
because at close range you do not have enough time to fire two shots to kill
someone, unless you can hit their heads all the time. The 7.62 round is strong
enough that you can kill anyone, regardless of armor, in two hits, no matter
where you hit them. It is the poor man's arctic, and is only really useful in
the early game when people haven't saved enough to buy Arctics yet. Still, the
true specialist can use this weapon in the same way sniper rifles were used
in action quake: for radical assault sniping! If you can keep hitting their
heads all the time, you can go a long way with this weapon, because it is
very accurate, even while side-stepping (unlike the Actic). Otherwise, if
you're not good enough, I recommend you stick to the Arctic. The sniper scope
has two settings, letting you choose your sniping distance - 2x or 4x.

NAME: AI Arctic Warfare/Magnum (Magnum Sniper Rifle) [4-6]
COST: $4750
AMMO: .338 Magnum Lapua
CLIP/MAX: 10/30
CLIP COST: $125 (10)
ACCURACY: Low
MOVE ACC: Low
RECOIL: High
RATE OF FIRE: Slow
AUTOFIRE: No
SPECIAL OPTION: 4x Sniper Scope
NOTES: This is the most bad-ass gun in the game, and my personal weapon of
choice. The AWP is also known as the "one-shot" gun, because one shot is enough
to kill anyone, regardless of health or armor, regardless of where you hit
them. In fact, it is enough to kill three or maybe even more people standing
in a straight line. That's how bad this gun is. Although this was without a
doubt the best weapon in the early betas of the game, this gun has slowly been
downgraded because of its unbalanced power. It is now terribly inaccurate, and
the penetration of the ammo is not as strong as it used to be. Still, it is a
very lethal weapon in the hands of a specialist. Just be sure to use the 2x
sniper setting, or else your shot will go way off-target; a result of the
downgrading the gun went through. In the past, it was great for assaults, but
ever since accuracy was downgraded to the most inaccurate gun in the game, it
is now only useful for long-range combat. Still, master this weapon, and you
easily have the potential to make the most kills in the game. Another note:
this gun is heavy, and you will move very slowly while equipping this gun.

TRIVIA: I believe this is the same sniper rifle used in Action Quake.

NAME: H&K G3/SG-1 (D3/AV-1 Semi-Automatic Sniper Rifle) [4-7]
COST: $5000
AMMO: 7.62mm NATO
CLIP/MAX: 20/60
CLIP COST: $80 (30)
ACCURACY: High
MOVE ACC: Medium
RECOIL: Medium
RATE OF FIRE: Slow
AUTOFIRE: Yes
SPECIAL OPTION: 4x Sniper Scope
NOTES: The G3 in CS is a weird gun. A normal G3 is supposed to be an assault
rifle, but here it has been converted into a sniper rifle. Anyway, this gun
has slightly less power than the Steyr Scout, but has a much faster rate of
fire. It was meant for long-range combat for trigger-happy people. However,
it is no match for an Arctic at such distances, and thus I don't find it very
useful. Still, it is good for long range and can pass off as a somewhat decent
assault weapon, if your aim is good. Otherwise, the rate of fire is still too
slow to compete with an MP5 at close quarters. I don't really recommend this
gun, because it is expensive and yet is not as effective as the Arctic. Still,
if you're playing against people who don't use Arctics and want to snipe while
using the auto-fire style, this is your gun. Oh, and as of v1.0, this is a
terrorist-only gun. It is also quite cumbersome and you will move quite slowly.

NAME: Sig 550 Commando (Krieg 550 Commando)  [4-8]
COST: $4200
AMMO: 5.56mm NATO
CLIP/MAX: 30/90
CLIP COST: $60 (30)
ACCURACY: High
MOVE ACC: Medium
RECOIL: Medium
RATE OF FIRE: Slow
AUTOFIRE: Yes
SPECIAL OPTION: 4x Sniper Scope
NOTES: This is a CT-only gun that was introduced in v1.0. Sadly for the CTs,
this is without a doubt the worst sniper gun in the game, maybe even the worst
gun in the game, period. It is grossly expensive, but is not really suited for
anything -- sniping, assault, nothing. It is utterly worthless. As a sniping
gun, it is very weak, with a rate of fire almost as slow as the G3, and a
sniper round inferior to the Scout. Many people were thinking it was good as
a sniper/assault hybrid like the G3, but the abyssmal rate of fire means you
will be mowed down to shreds by people using MP5s before you get off your
second shot. Its only bonus is that it has a 4x sniper scope with a large clip,
but then the Aug has the same clip size and is more accurate to boot. One
might think that its faster rate of fire makes it better than the G3, but I
contest that this is not necessarily so because the 5.56 round does less
damage than the G3's 7.62. A G3 player still has a better chance of nabbing
a Krieg 550 user in a sniper battle. To be honest, I perform better at
sniping with an Aug or a 552 Commando than with this gun. So the only thing
it has going for it is the 4x scope, but then the G3 has that, the AWP has
that, the Scout has that. A truly weird gun. For now, I have to figure out
how to use it before I speak of it further.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.f -- Machine Guns

There is only one machine gun in this game, the FN Para. It is good only in
the hands of a specialist, it is not the kind of gun a newbie should use.
And yet, for some reason, newbies love to buy this gun. I wonder why?

NAME: FN M249 Para (ES M249) [5-1]
COST: $5750
AMMO: 5.56mm NATO
CLIP/MAX: 100/200
CLIP COST: $60 (30)
ACCURACY: Medium
MOVE ACC: Low
RECOIL: High
RATE OF FIRE: Medium
AUTOFIRE: Yes
SPECIAL OPTION: None
NOTES: This full-sized machine gun is a modified version of the M249. The M249
was supposed to be the standard machine gun issue that would replace the M4 in
the US Army. This gun is NOWHERE as good as the M249 is supposed to be, though.
It is very, very heavy, easily the heaviest gun in the game. This gun is like
an over-souped version of the AK-47, slow, but very painful and quite accurate.
Still, I find this to be a rather pathetic gun, and the only reason I would
recommend you buy it is for its huge magazine clip -- 100 shots. You practically
don't need to reload at all, unless you splurge your fire on the walls of the
opponent's encampment: the true use of this gun. The best use of the gun so far
by my estimate. Hope to score hits by spraying on the walls. Otherwise, it is
too slow for serious close combat use, is quite inaccurate except in small
bursts, has virtually no accuracy while moving, and is very, very expensive.
I'd pick it up if someone left it and I had no weapon, but I would never trade
my AK-47 or Carbine for it.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.g -- Other Equipment

Aside from guns, there are other things you can purchase to help you in
your life and death struggle. These can be bought through the use of your
buy equipment key. (Bind this as 'buyequip' -- see Binding Technique)

NAME: Kevlar Armor [1]
COST: $650
NOTES: This will provide your torso area with extra protection. For more
details, see the Damage section in Chapter III.

NAME: Kevlar Armor with Helmet [2]
COST: $1000
NOTES: Same as normal armor, except the helmet works wonders in stopping
those headshots. Buy this and not the first one whenever possible.

NAME: Flashbang [3]
COST: $200
NOTES: Also known as the concussion grenade, flashbangs do no damage
whatsoever, but blind anyone caught in its blast for an amount of time
dependent on the victim's proximity. Looking up or away doesn't matter;
you'll be blinded just the same. However, the blast does not go through
objects, so you can keep your vision by ducking behind an obstacle.
Most people frown on the flashbang, but those few seconds of blindness
can be far more damaging than an HE explosion. You can carry up to two
of these at a time.

NAME: HE Grenade [4]
COST: $300
NOTES: Most players prefer this grenade. It explodes in a small radius,
and anyone inside that radius is damaged a certain amount. This damage
is almost never enough to kill anyone from full health, but is good
enough to weaken enemies and damage their armor. Because of the blast
radius, this is a favorite item for clearing several enemies in one
fell swoop. You can carry only one of these at a time.

NAME: Smoke Grenade [5]
COST: $300
NOTES: Most people consider this a useless item. However, it is perhaps
the single most effective grenade to aid in breaching an enemy's well-
camped position. Once thrown, it does no damage, but it releases a
cloud of billowing smoke for a few long seconds. The smoke impairs
the visibility of everyone. Needless to say, this is the perfect
weapon to get past those sniper-prone areas.

NAME: Defuse Kit [6]
COST: $200
NOTES: In bomb maps, CTs can purchase this to drastically cut down bomb
defusal time. At $200, many CTs may find expensive, but it can mean the
difference between winning the round (and the $2750 bonus) or losing.
Most terrorists leave the bomb at a certain time to prevent getting
killed. If they wait to the last possible moment, a CT who comes in
after the terrorists have fled won't have enough time to disarm it
(provided the server didn't mess with the bomb explosion time). However,
with the defuse kit, the CT can make it just in the nick of time. Thus,
terrorists up against CTs with defuse kits must stay to the death, or
risk having the bomb defused.

NAME: Night Vision [7]
COST: $1250
NOTES: This is one worthless piece of equipment. Although being able to
see in the dark areas of the map is vital to CS, the Night Vision in
this game is so poorly done that it's more of a headache than of help.
It simply ups the gamma a bit and changes the palette to a greener
color, but the palette change is volatile and quite painful to the eye.
If you want night vision, there's a cheaper, better way: see the
Dirty Tricks section.

NAME: Knife
COST: Free!
SPECIAL FUNCTION: Sadistic Stab
AUTOFIRE: Yes!
NOTES: You don't actually buy this, you always have it. Since it is a
weapon, I might as well discuss it. The knife in the early beta days
was one dangerous weapon. Two or three slashes was more than enough
to kill a fully-armored agent. Now, however, knife damage has been
weakened drastically, making normal knife attacks less than half the
strength of what they used to be. The special weapon function is not
a setting change, but a secondary attack of the knife: the sadistic
stab. This does roughly as much damage as the old knife used to do
with a normal attack, but takes longer to execute. In the old days I
would recommend switching to the knife whenever you were at point
blank range. Nowadays, since it does so little damage, I hesitate
to do such. If you manage to get the jump on your enemey, sure. Then
again, maybe not.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.h -- Weapon Movement Speeds

Right, different weapon weights contribute to different weapon speeds.
Here is how movement speed is rated depending on what weapon you equip.
This is a rough guide, estimated from experience.

(Fastest)
Knife, Grenades
H&K USP, Glock, Desert Eagle, Sig P228, Five Seven
Benelli M3, Benelli XM1014, Dual Beretta, Steyr Tactical Machine
Ingram MAC-10, MP5, FN P90, Steyr Scout
Steyr AUG, Sig Commando, M4 Carbine
Krieg Commando
G3/SG-1 Sniper
AK-47
Artic Warfare Magnum
FN M249 PARA
(Slowest)


===============================================================================
V. COUNTER-STRIKE TECHNIQUES

This is the meat of this FAQ, that which separates this from all the
other guides. While these techniques may not be all there is to it,
and certainly they may not be perfect, but these are the best techniques
I have learned. I hope it's enough to help you become a better player. I
eventually hope to put in every single tactic and technique I know, even
the ones I don't use, because part of defeating your opponent is knowing
how he operates.

Now that we've discussed the basics and are familiar with the weapons,
we can get to the nitty-gritty combat tactics. These are tactics which
you will be using most of the time you play CS, be sure to learn them,
and more importantly learn how to counter them!
===============================================================================

5.a -- General Techniques

These tricks are useful for general CS play. Be sure to learn them
and make them work for you.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.a1 - Listening

"If you want to defeat me, you must not make a sound."
   -- Utsutsu Mujuro, Jubei Ninpucho

Although while playing on a LAN it may be very noisy, listening still
plays an important part in personal fighting tactics. The most important
thing about listening is to listen for your opponent's weapon. Each weapon
in CS sounds distinct, and by listening to the gun fire going on, you can
determine what weapon your opponent is using. If you know what his weapon
is, you can determine what kind of approach you can take to defeat him.
These different techniques will be discussed later in the individual
weapon strategies. In CS, it is imperative that you learn what each
weapon sounds like, so that you know what you are up against, and thus
can plan accordingly.

--------------------------------------------
| Listen for your opponent's weapon sounds |
--------------------------------------------

Another, more difficult skill to learn is listening for footsteps. If you
don't have a friendly dead team-mate coaching you as to the enemy's location,
your best recourse is to listen carefully for footfalls. Most people disregard
this ability, but it is often crucial in ambushing enemy players. When you
hear foot falls, keep quiet and sneak. You just might ambush an opponent.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.a2 - Weapon Switching

"That's why they call me Himura Battousai, because I learned all the
sword drawing techniques."
   --- Himura Kenshin, Rurouni Kenshin

In CS, different weapons slow down your movement. The worst perpetrators are
the Arctic, the AK, and the Para. Still, even if you're not using these
weapons, weapon switching is important to get you where you want to go fast.
Weapon switching can mean the difference when you are diving for cover from
enemy fire.

--------------------------------------------------------------
| Switch weapons intelligently! It can save your life, or at |
| the very least get you to where you want to go faster      |
--------------------------------------------------------------

At the start of the round, where it is crucial to get to the strategic
points of the map as quickly as possible, changing your weapon to your
knife or grenade is the single best tactic you can do, aside from buying
your equipment as fast as possible. While buying equipment fast takes
practice, anyone can switch to his knife. Most people laugh at those
who charge at the start of their rounds with their knive, but they
don't realize they are doing it to get to the key points as quickly as
possible. This is one of the foundations of good team strategy.

The other important use of weapon switching is to get out of enemy fire.
If you are outgunned and decide to strategically withdraw, you have two
options: shoot back while side-stepping to cover, or change to your knife
and make a mad dash for cover. Switching to your knife is the fastest way
to escape.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.a2a - Super Weapon Switching

This is an advanced technique which the advanced, mentally-developed
players use. A player who has refined his awareness and reflexes to a
razor's edge while assaulting will often be seen switching weapons
continuously while marching into enemy territory. Many inexperienced
people will think he is mad, but in truth he is doing so to speed up
movement as much as possible while the enemy is gone. This is a very
powerful technique; it enables one to move as if one were equipped
with nothing (knife speed), but the moment an enemy shows up, the
player immediately has his primary weapon ready -- an AK, a Para,
whatever, and has it aimed at his opponent's head. Because of his
lightning speed due to the weapon switching, lesser opponents have
trouble hitting his fast moving body, and as soon as he sees the
opponent, he opens fire. Dead enemy. Achieving the highest level of
this technique takes long practice, but the lower levels of it are
accessible to the intermediate player.

A lower level use of this technique is to eliminate recoil and reload
time. This is a favorite application of Arctic assault snipers. After
shooting a well-aimed AWP shot (and hopefuly killing someone) an
advanced Arctic fighter will quickly switch to knife and pistol, so
you can move and dodge while waiting for your chance to shoot again.
If you're fast enough, you can potentially switch back, ready to fire
again, shortening rechambering time. Good Benelli M3 fighters use a
variation of this technique, switching to their secondary to finish
the job in case they missed the opponent's head. More on these techniques
later.

The advanced weapon switching technique is easily done by assigning
a key to the "previous weapon" command, preferably one close to the
movement keys. This way, a person can switch weapons easily with one
button while moving. More skilled players do it the hard way: pressing
1, 2, and 3 to switch from knife, primary and secondary while moving
forward with the 'W' key. Practice whatever method you find best
suited to you. Note that you can only achieve the harder version of
the technique by turning "HUD_FASTSWITCH" on. (See console commands)

Take note that while running, using the "LASTINV" weapon switch button,
will switch almost instantaneously between weapons. This is very
important for some guns, like the Arctic.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.a3 - Radar

Most people wonder what that green thing at the top left of their
screen is. It's actually a radar which tells you the position of your
teammates! This is a minor concern, but keeping your eye on that HUD
will let you determine where your opponents are, in case an enemy
kills them. Just watch where the light blinks out. Don't overdo it,
though, especially if you are at the front of your team. You wouldn't
want to be caught looking at the radar when an opponent jumps in front
of you and riddles you to swiss cheese.

The best use of the radar HUD is to keep track of where the bomb or the
VIP is. That way, you can easily defend the VIP, or pick up the bomb if
someone kills the bomb-bearer.

You can also actually turn the HUD off, to give you more visibility.
The console command is "HIDERADAR". To get it back, type "DRAWRADAR 1"
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.a3a -- Cheap Night Vision

Here's a funny technique someone sent in. Notice how the radar HUD is
a lightgreen color? If you are in a darkish area and look through that
little circle, you'll find that it actually lights up the darker areas,
as if it were a nightvision filter! Well, it's rather small and
inconvenient, but hey, it's free.

You can use this little quirk to scout out dark areas on the map.
However, I really don't recommend doing this while assaulting or
while walking since you have to look downwards to get the HUD at
center-viewing level. I only recommend doing this when you're
skulking around in a near pitch-black room.

Take note that, like regular Nightvision, if it is pitch-black and
there is really no light, this won't work at all (like in the hostage
room in CS_ALPIN).

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.a4 - Miscellaneous Console Commands

This isn't really a technique, but you should know this anyway. Console
commands are command-prompt style commands (ala DOS) which give you a
lot of hands-on control over your environment. As much as possible, to
be a truly good CS player, you should familiarize yourself with the
console, and use it as much as possible over the GUI interface. It's
like computer users: Windows users are often technically inferior
compared to DOS or Linux users.

To enable your console, be sure to start Counter-Strike with the -console
switch. If you don't know what that means, follow these instructions:

1.) Right-click on your Counter Strike desktop shortcut.
2.) At the bottom of the menu is Properties. Click it.
3.) The properties window will pop up. There are two parts,
    General, and Shortcut. You start in Shortcut by default,
    stay there, this is what you're interested in.
4.) In the middle portion are three fields: Target Type,
    Target Location, and Target. You're interested in the
    third. It should read something like:

    "C:\program files\Halflife\cstrike.exe"

5.) Add to this the switch "-console" The new command should
    look something like this:

    "C:\program files\Halflife\cstrike.exe -console"

6.) Click Apply, close the window with Ok, and you're set. Your
    console is now enabled the next time you start Counter Strike
    using this desktop shortcut. Congratulations! Now you can meddle
    around with all the console commands.

Be sure to make good use of your console, you can type a lot of things
there to improve your game. You can bring out the console by default
by pressing the tilde key (`) beside 1, above TAB. Then you can type
in commands. You can type multiple commands in one line by separating
them with a semi-colon. (i.e. -- "ADJUST_CROSSHAIR";"SENSITIVITY 5")

I will only include here the commands that will directly influence
your gameplay. If you want a complete list of commands, go find
another guide. What's here is strictly limited to the useful
commands that affect your game. I will add other commands in the
"Dirty Tricks" section, the ones which are quite unfair.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.a4a -- Sensitivity
Be sure to adjust your mouse sensitivity to your needs. Type:

   SENSITIVITY X

Where X is an integer from 1-20. Twenty is very sensitive, and a short
tug of your mouse will give you a 180 degree spin. This is useful for
assaulters who need to see a wide area as fast as possible. Twenty,
though is for the really skilled who have perfect mouse control. A
setting of 10 or so is more than adequate for an assaulter, any greater
may entail aiming difficulty. For snipers, a value of 2 to 8 is good,
giving great control needed for precision. The most hardcore snipers use 1.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.a4b -- Crosshair
Some maps have textures whose color blend with your green crosshair.
You can fix this and make aiming easier by changing the crosshair's
color. To do this, type

   ADJUST_CROSSHAIR

at the console. This will cycle from the five different cursor colors:
light green, light red, light blue, cyan, and yellow. Be sure to select
the color that suits the map best. Even if no cursor fits the map
color, it still feels good to change the color to your favorite color.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.a4c -- Quick Weapon Switching
You need to use this command to achieve the "Quick Weapon Switch"
technique described earlier. When on, pressing your primary weapon
button will bring out your weapon immediately, without you needing
to press the fire button to select it from the weapon HUD.

To turn on, type:

   HUD_FASTSWITCH 1
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.a4d -- Mouse Filter
Sometimes, you might notice that the movement while looking around
with your mouse is not very fluid. This can be very detrimental to
your aim, and is feared by snipers everywhere. More often than not,
this is due to the mouse filter being switched off. You can switch
it on in the config screen, but that takes too much time. Here's
how to do it with the console:

   M_FILTER 1
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.a4e -- Binding Technique
Binding commands to a key is a trick which has carried over from Quake 2.
To bind a command to a key, type:

   BIND "X" "COMMAND"

Where x is the key you want to bind the command to. For instance, to
bind the adjust_crosshair command to the letter c, type:

   BIND "C" "ADJUST_CROSSHAIR"

There are applications to this command, but I will discuss them later
in the "dirty tricks" section. More mundane uses for this are easy
like using the console to change your name, or your controls. Refer
to other documents listing all the commands; I'm just enumerating all
the tricks that can improve your gameplay performance and killing skill.

The most powerful trick perhaps is the power to combine binds into a
powerful hotkey technique. By combining commands, you can bind two or
more commands into one key, for a variety of effects limited only by
your imagination. Simply separate the commands with a semi-colon:

BIND "X" "COMMAND1;COMMAND2"

The most obvious application of this is to power-up your buy menu
hotkeys. For instance, you could have a "quick ammo" button to buy
all the ammo you need in one stroke:

BIND "X" "BUYAMMO1;BUYAMMO1;BUYAMMO1;BUYAMMO2;BUYAMMO2;BUYAMMO2"

This would purchase three clips of primary and secondary ammo
each, at the bargain price of one keystroke!

Learn how to use the console and the binding commands! Old DOS-boys
should have no problem picking this up, it's the impoverished Windows
generation that doesn't get stuff like this. Shame on you Bill Gates,
for teaching a whole generation of computer users to be ILLITERATE!
(or its equivalent in the computer world)

I'm not a real expert on this stuff, and I'm just giving you
the cursory information to get your started. For more in-depth
descriptions of this, see the links section.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.a4f -- On the Fly Config Switch
This is a useful technique to get you up and running as soon as
possible in a LAN environment. In the CS directory is a file called
CONFIG.CFG. This contains all your controls for CS, and is loaded
when you start the game. What you do is rename that file as another
file, say MOCHAN.CFG. This is now your very own personal config
file, with all your binds and controls!

Load this file from the console with the command:
   EXEC MOCHAN.CFG

This will load all your controls and binds on the fly! Be sure to
edit it manually to add the more esoteric commands (i.e. - the
ones detailed in this section).

Aside from use in LAN shops, this trick is also useful at home, for
instance if you are sharing one computer with someone else, and you
use different controls. This way, you can swap controls on the fly
with a few key strokes!

Also, certain commands do not get saved in the default config file,
like the CL_XSPEED codes. Loading your custom config file with all
these commands makes life so much more convenient.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.a5 - Speed Buying Technique

"In the words of my idol Bruce Lee, to win, you must be fast."
   -- That guy on the Discovery Channel

This is a technique which all serious CS players should master. Often, it
is this technique which really separates the newbies from the veterans. At
the start of each round, most inexperienced players fumble around the menu
screens, pressing the "Buy Equipment Button" and looking at the gun
selections. Then they "Buy Primary Ammo" and look over the "Buy Equipment"
menu. Unfortunately for the Newbie, they were playing in AS_FOREST and the
grizzled vet had already come over and shot him full of holes.

To avoid this, you have to be very fast in the buy menu screen. You should
at the very least be capable of buying everything in less than three seconds,
faster if possible. The best players waste 0 seconds buying what they need.

---------------------------------------------------------
| Decide what you will buy before the next round starts |
---------------------------------------------------------

This is CRUCIAL. Read the text in the box above over and over and over until
you have nightmares about it. I cannot stress the importance of this enough.
Many people have quick fingers to buy the goods they want in record time, but
may people hesitate at the start of the round because they do not know what
they will buy. The trick is to decide what you will buy before the next
round starts.

Do not waste time looking at the pretty pictures and stats of the
the different guns in the menu screen. That's why I included a weapons section
in this guide; so that you can read the important stuff now, and not later
while you're playing.

The easy way to decide is to stick to a preferred weapon. This is a good
idea for newbies, because to gain skill quickly, you have to specialize in
one weapon type. The drawback here is that sometimes you might not have
enough money to buy the weapon you want. Specializing in the Arctic, for
instance, takes a while because you need two rounds on average -- three if
you just won the last fight but lost the next two -- to buy one. Thus, an
advanced mastery of this technique requires you keep track of your finances.
Don't worry if you can't compute it all precisely, but you should be able
to estimate how much you will spend.

Now, some newbies like to hoard their money up to the maximum, $16000. This
is a no-no. What good is all that money if you're not going to use it?
Spend as you need; don't be afraid to buy that expensive Arctic if it will
turn the tide to your favor! The only time you should be hoarding is when
you're saving up to buy an expensive gun you need, like the Arctic.

To help you manage your budget, here's the money table (taken from
the CS manual which is in your CStrike directory)

Action:                            You Get:    Your Team Gets:
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kill a Hostage                      -$1500
'Use' a Hostage                       $150        $100
Kill Opponent                         $300
Kill Team Mate                      -$3300
*Terrorist Win by bombing                        $2750
*Win by Elimination Hostage map                  $2000 + Hostage Bonus
*Win by Elimination Bomb map                     $2500
*CTs Defuse Bomb                                 $2750
*CTs Win by Rescuing Hostages                    $2000 + Hostage Bonus
 HOSTAGE BONUSES:
   Surviving Hostage Bonus                        $150 per hostage
   Rescuing a Hostage                $1000        $150
   Hostages Rescued Bonus                         $250 per hostage
*Either Team Loses Round                         $1400

Either Team Loses 2 Rounds Straight             $1400 + $500 per round
                                                  over 2 (to maximum $2900)

You should be able to get a good estimate of how much money you will
have in the next round using this table. Now, in most cases you will
not know the outcome of the battle, unless there is an overwhelming
reason for you to assume who will win (like the bomb is about to
explode with no CTs in sight, or a 1 on 5 situation). As such, to
properly estimate your balance in the next round, you must assume
you will be defeated, to ensure that you can purchase whatever you
had in mind.

"To prepare to defeat your opponent is to first prepare for
your own defeat."
  -- The Ookina, Rurouni Kenshin

Of course you could get cocky and assume you will always win, but
such an optimistic view can tend to get you in budget trouble. The
best approach is the conservative approach, methinks.

Thus, you must particularly memorize the bonuses I marked with an
asterisk -- these are the bonuses which you cannot determine before
the round ends, and which are the most useful for estimating how
much income you will have next round. Other things, like killing
an opponent or hostage, you can check before the round ends in most
cases. Just keep in mind the ones marked with an asterisk. If you
have a good head for figures, you can also figure in the hostage
bonuses, but these are hard to keep track of, and doing so would
really detract from the fun of playing.


Next, make use of the prices I gave in the weapon guide. Also take careful
note of whether you will buy armor, and how much ammo you plan to take
along, and what peripherals (grenades, etc). Most people like fully loading
their ammo, so I have also included the maximum ammo you can carry. Keep
in mind that all weapons you buy come with a full clip, but no extra ammo,
unless you had some previously. For instance, as a terrorist, if you buy an
MP5 you will already have 40 rounds carried over from your default Glock.
Remember that CTs start with 24 .45 ACP rounds, terrorists with 40 9mm
rounds.

Carefully plan how much money you will spend each round. It helps to
remember how much you spend with the configurations you routinely buy. For
instance, I like buying an Arctic with 10 extra rounds and a full suit of
armor. That's $4750 + $125 + $1000, for a total of $5875. I also know how
much I will spend for a fully-loaded MP5: $1500 + $80 = $1580, plus armor
for $2580. Keep track how much money you expect to have, and compare it
with your standard configurations. That way you can have smooth sailing
while buying at the start of each round.

-----------------------------------------
| Use the Hot Keys and Quick Buy Numbers |
-----------------------------------------

Now that you've got a good grasp of the economics and the foresight to buy
what you want, let's get to the actual buying techniques. Many newbies rely
on the primary buy menu (defaults to F1, I think) to buy all their equipment,
even their ammunition. This is a big no-no, because it takes more key clicks
and wastes time. Instead, you should assign a key for the main buy menu only
to buy guns, and three more hotkeys for the three important submenus: primary
ammo, secondary ammo, and equipment.

With these four hotkeys and the "Quick Buy Numbers" I notated in the equipment
list, you can achieve godspeed in arming yourself. Quick numbers are the
corresponding menu slots of certain items. For instance, the MP5 is [3-1] in
the primary buy menu: assuming F1 is your hotkey for the buy menu, you would
press F1 to bring out the buy menu, then '3' for SMGs, then '1' for the MP5.
Check out the Quick Buy Numbers in the weapons list.

This is how you should buy:

Step 1: Before the round begins, know what to buy
Step 2: Buy your main and secondary guns with the primary buy menu
Step 3: Buy your ammo with the ammo hotkeys
Step 4: Buy your armor
Step 5: Buy other peripherals (grenades, bomb kit, etc)

My controls are configured this way:      Bind Command
F1 - Buy Menu                               BUY
F2 - Buy Primary Ammo                       BUYAMMO1
F3 - Buy Secondary Ammo                     BUYAMMO2
F4 - Buy Equipment                          BUYEQUIP

In case you haven't configured your controls properly, you can quick
configure them using the binding technique. For instance, to bind
the buy equipment menu to F4, type at the console:

   BIND "F4" "BUYEQUIP"

Using Quick Buy Numbers, I can buy whatever configuration I chose ahead
of time in a second or so. For instance, as a terrorist one of my favorite
setups is an AK-47 with 2 extra clips, full armor, and a flashbang. As
soon as the round starts, I very quickly press F1-4-1-F2-F2-F4-2-F4-3.
Nine simple keystrokes, all in a few seconds. I am ready for action
while most newbies are still deciding what weapon to buy.

-----------------------------------------
| Start moving the moment you buy items |
-----------------------------------------

Some servers have a few seconds at the start of the round to buy equipment,
but many more do not. Thus, it is imperative to learn how to apply the
buying technique above WHILE moving. It depends on your control setup, but
if you modify your controls be sure to do to keep all your buy keys right
next to your move keys, so you can achieve this technique. To ensure that
you don't waste time and thus lose strategic ground, be sure to master
buying while running. This is useful because most of the time you cannot
press all those keys in under a second. Further, sometimes you may have to do
twelve or more keystrokes, if you choose to buy a secondary weapon. This can
take up to three seconds or even more, and those three seconds are crucial,
best spent already running for your objective than standing at your base.

FINAL NOTE: I haven't explored this fully, but you can if you want.
You can use bind scripts to simplify this entire process. Imagine
assigning one key for your "MP5 Configuration," and having to just
press that one key to get fully suited up. Go see the links section
for sites going in-depth in the use of scripts.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.a6 - End Reloading Technique

This is a very simple technique that many people do not do. Most likely,
they will reload at the start of the next round, which is a big waste of
time. In order to achieve maximum speed, you should always start the
next round fully loaded. Doing this is simple:

---------------------------------------------
| Reload the moment the previous round ends |
---------------------------------------------

It's as easy as that! Make it a habit to press your reload button as
soon as your team wins the round. When the next round starts, your gun
will automatically be fully loaded, even if you hadn't finished reloading
yet (it happens with slow reload guns like the AWP, Steyr Aug, and FN Para).

If you reload at the end of the round, you will be free to utilize the
Speed Buying technique in the next round. Most importantly, you will
be able to switch to your knife immediately and run for whatever key
point you have to secure as soon as possible.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.a7 - Bunny Hopping

This is a funny technique which is very hard to master. Actually, I
haven't actually managed to pull it off yet, but Paul Kerr assures
me that it works. You just need lots of practice.

Remember in Thief Gold, where you could run, jump, and at the precise
moment that you land jump again, and so on? With each successive jump,
by spending as little time as possible on the ground, you increase your
velocity, as if you were falling down a long pit. It's a bug which is
present in almost all the older FPS games, Quake II included (and thus,
Counter Strike by default).

If you do this properly in CS, you can achieve inhuman speed while
travelling in a straight line. This is actually bordering on being
a cheat, but since its usefulness is limited and it is very, very
difficult to pull off, I don't consider it as such. You actually
have to work hard to pull this one off! Cheats are usually things
which give instant results without training, so this thing is still
valid in my book.

===============================================================================
5.b -- Defensive Techniques

These techniques are invaluable for keeping yourself alive. Defense is the
most important, more important than offense. Defense comes first. Most
advanced offensive techniques can only be learned after first mastering the
basic defensive movement techniques. To become a true fighting god, you must
master the basic defensive movement techniques.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.b1 - Side Stepping

Side-stepping is a very useful skill for staying alive. Even beginners
have little trouble hitting a stationary target, but a moving target is
far more difficult to hit. Especially when the target is moving from
side to side, directly perpendicular to you. To ensure that your opponents
have as much trouble as possible hitting you, the zig zag side stepping
technique is essential.

Basically, you just side step directly left and right when your opponents
start shooting you. Barring taking cover and not showing yourself, this
technique is the best defense against one-shot Arctic snipers. Assaulters
should master this technique first and foremost, because they are often
in the line of fire.

-------------------------------------------------------------
| Sidestepping decreases your accuracy, but keeps you alive |
-------------------------------------------------------------

The drawback to side-stepping is that your accuracy goes down dramatically.
A shot you might have made easily while standing, will often go wild while
side-stepping. Thus, you generally should only attempt side-stepping while
fighting at close to mid-range, especially while using pistols or the more
accurate assault weapons like the MP5 and M4 Carbine.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.b2 - Ducking

Ducking is an important defensive technique, and is also an offensive trick.
Ducking will help you take cover behind smaller obstacles, but it is also
equally effective at making you a smaller target when in plain sight. The
drawback to ducking, though, is that an opponent aiming for your body might
get a headshot when you duck. Still, that is a calculated risk you will have
to take, because ducking gives you the added advantage of increasing your
accuracy as you counterattack. That is why ducking is also an offensive tactic.

-----------------------------------
| Ducking increases your accuracy |
-----------------------------------

In general, you must choose from one of these two techniques when fighting
an opponent. You can either keep side-stepping while firing back in order
to make yourself a harder target, but you also sacrifice your own accuracy.
Ducking is less defensive, as you will be easier to hit than a side-stepping
maniac, but the trade-off is that you will have an easier time hitting your
opponent. It is your call, but you should adapt a tactic based on your
opponent's weapon. For instance, if your enemy is using an MP5, ducking can
be safe, but if he is using an Arctic, ducking is a stupid thing to do, and
side-stepping would be better.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.b3 - Jumping

Jumping is also a defensive technique which can save your skin. However, it
is not as important a technique as side-stepping or ducking. Jumping is more
the coward's technique: you will usually want to side-step and jump only when
you have no intention whatsoever of fighting back. Unlike side-stepping and
ducking which is meant as evasive techniques while counter-attacking, jumping
should only be used for purely evasive purposes. Why?

---------------------------------------
| Accuracy goes to shit while jumping |
---------------------------------------

Remember this basic truth, and you'll go a long way in Counter Strike. Lots of
newbies like jumping around while firing back at their enemies. Small wonder
most of their shots miss. If you're going to attack while dodging, stick to
side-stepping. Jumping while sidestepping is a purely defensive, escaping
tactic. However:

----------------------------------------------
| Be careful jumping around an Arctic player |
----------------------------------------------

A skilled sniper will calculate the end of your jump and aim their, tagging
you instantly as you land. Avoid jumping in plain sight of an arctic
wielding opponent; it is a quick way to die. If you must jump, begin the jump
where the opponent cannot see you, thus he will have trouble anticipating
your jump and your landing. Or, jump only when the end point of your jump is
concealed from the Arctic's deadly line of sight. Jumping also plays a role
in Arctic-to-Arctic duels. More on that later.


These are the basic movement-related defense skills. However, true defensive
skills are awareness-based and not movement based, and are more tactical in
nature. Most of these techniques I might eventually disclose in specific
map tactics, but for now I will just give a general overview of the general
advanced defense techniques, the mind-based techniques.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.b4 - Shadow Technique

Since CS uses the Half-life engine, which emphasized dark shadowy corners for
monsters to hide in, the CS environment is complete with dark places on the
map where you can hide and, in general, make yourself less visible. One can't
shoot what one can't detect, and making yourself hard to see is the key to
exploiting this weakness. This technique is especially useful for campers.
Be sure to find those spots on the map where you are given cover, whether by
obstacles, shadows, or both. Surprise is a lethal weapon that is worth more
than a hundred bullets. I may someday write specific map tactics to point out
all these good hiding places. For now, a good example of the shadow technique
is the CT-side of the sewers in DE_AZTEC. The back of the grate from the
bridge is pitch-dark, and a CT agent wearing a dark skin is practically
invisible from a terrorist coming from underneath the bridge.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.b5 - Hit and Run Technique

This is what is called the "Style of the Ages." There is no better way to keep
yourself alive than to shoot fast at the moment you see your enemy, and run
like hell away after that shot. That is, shoot your enemy once, hoping to
damage or kill him, but regardless run away and duck for cover as soon as the
shot is fired. This gives your opponent no chance to react to you and do you
harm, yet gives you the chance to kill him. This technique works best with an
Arctic, but can be adapted for any gun. These guerilla tactics will harass and
frustrate your enemy, if nothing else. And messing with your opponent's mind is
one of the most important tactics in winning a battle. Needless to say, to
succeed with this technique you must have pinpoint sniper accuracy in as quick
a time as possible.

Some people like to pop out again after hiding, but this is dangerous as your
opponent knows where you are likely to come from, and the advantage of surprise
is lost. The best course is to run away completely and flank the enemy to try
to get at them from another angle they don't expect. It's easier said than
done, but familiarity with the map and experience will help you achieve this.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.b6 - Crowd Defense

If you're a smart, unscrupulous player and are not playing for the good of the
team, one of the most effective defensive techniques is the crowd defense.
Stick with your team, and be with them all the time! This is the best way to
increase your chances of survival. Specifically, hide behind your teammates
whenever an opponent shows up. This way, your teammate will likely get fragged
before you, but he will hopefully have softened up your opponent, leaving you
to clean-up the mess.

This technique also works cooperatively while camping. Two heads is better
than one, so to speak. When camping, it is best to camp in crowds. You can
cover more area, and there is a good chance if the opposing team assaults,
they will kill your other teammates instead of you. So make sure to use the
shadow technique while camping and make yourself less visible than your
teammates, so they will be hit first while you finish off the attackers!

5.b6a -- Hostage Defense

This is a varation of the Crowd Defense technique. When teammates are scarce,
the next best alternative is to use hostages! By having hostages follow you
around, you can easily get some cover from fire, and if you're good enough at
dodging, your enemy might actually hit and kill the hostage, getting a
whopping cash deduction. In fact, one of the cheap tricks I do for fun is get
a hostage, hack it down to 7% life, and have it follow around. An enemy will
shoot me, miss, and hit the hostage, depleting his money. Even better, I often
get groups of the hostages and hack them down. Enemies love throwing grenades
all the time, and it only takes one well-placed grenade to kill all of them,
leaving the grenade thrower with no cash whatosoever.

One of my nastiest techniques involves the Hostage and Shadow Defense
techniques in the darkest corridor of CS_MANSION. Recall that corridor outside
the hostage room? Hide in the intersection of the corridor, where it's really
dark, and put a hostage to either side of you. CTs charging in will likely hit
the hostages, killing them, and leaving you to mop up the mess. It's a very
effective technique, though your enemies will probably curse you for the coward
you are. ^_^


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.b7 - Smart Reloading

Reloading is an often ignored aspect of Counter Strike tactics. But knowing
when to reload and when not to is one of the most crucial aspects of CS
gameplay! Reloading tactics vary from weapon to weapon, and there are a lot
of specific circumstances which one can learn only through experience. But
I will try to give a basic theory of how to reload properly.

Basically, you want to balance your reloads such that you are not
reloading when an opponent is likely to show up, but you must also
reload whenever the rounds in your clip is below the amount you need
to make a kill.

In general, you must gauge how much ammunition you need to kill one
opponent. When you know this number, you should keep at least twice
that number in your clip at all times. If you have less than that, you
should consider reloading.

Reload sparingly, as much as possible don't reload at all. I see a lot
of newbies get killed because they see an enemy, fire a few shots, which
the enemy dodges easily as he ducks for cover. As the enemy disappears,
the newbie immediately begins reloading, "to keep his guns at top capacity."
Then as soon as they reload, the enemy pops out and shoots holes in them.
This is really sad. Many novice players reload their MP5s even while they
have 20 or more rounds in them. This is no good, the risk of getting caught
reloading is greater than that of running out of ammo. Learning to balance
when to reload when ammo is running low is crucial.


The opposite extreme is also true. The newer players -- particularly those
who have either not played an FPS before, or are used to Doom-style shooters
where there is no reloading -- often do not reload at all. In the middle of
a gunfight, they suddenly run out, and find themselves automatically reloading
as they are still pressing the trigger button tight, out of ammo. The enemy
will immediately smile at the clicking sound, and gun them down as they change
the clip.

The most important consideration, though, is enemy density and proximity.
If it's the start of the round and enemies are far away, you can reload
with no worry. But if it's late in the game and an enemy could be waiting
just around the corner, reloading is dangerous.

----------------------------------
| Do not attack while reloading! |
----------------------------------

Doing so is one of the most idiotic thing you can do, but sadly I see a
lot of people do it (I myself am guilty of this at times). If an opponent
suddenly shows up, you'll be dead before you even fire a single shot.

A few basic tips to reloading:
 - When reloading, keep yourself covered. Reload either when you have a
   buddy backing you up, or after ducking behind a crate or empty corridor.
 - Do not move toward where an opponent could be hiding when reloading.
   Only actually start to reload when you are safely hidden and you are
   sure no enemy is hiding around you.
 - Be prepared to bring out your secondary if an opponent does jump you
   while reloading. This is your last-ditch effort to save yourself in
   case an enemy catches you with your gun down.

In general, reloading also depends on your weapon. Weak weapons which require
lots of shots to kill, like the MP5, should be reloaded as much as possible,
whenever there is a lull in the battle. Stronger guns like the AK-47 and
especially the Arctic, should be reloaded sparingly. I usually don't reload
my AK until my ammo goes below 15, and I only reload my Arctic when I have
less than 5 shots left.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.b8 - Continuous Movement Defense

The final important mental technique is that of continous movement.

----------------------------------------
| Never stay in one place for too long |
----------------------------------------

Even a camper shouldn't stay in one place too long, for an enemy may
go around and flank him, sneaking up on him from behind. Also, the
use of continuous movement makes you as hard a target as possible at
all times. CS players, particularly Arctic snipers, love nothing more
than a stationary target. But someone who is constantly on the move
will foil this expectation, making you far more difficult to kill,
even if an opponent catches you by surprise.

But, the most important use of continously moving around, is to constantly
exercise your mind, keeping it from stagnating. This is an important
physiological consideration, as allowing your mind to stagnate will dull your
reflexes and make you easier to kill.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.b9 - Flee from Fire Technique

This is a very basic technique which all CS players should learn, but
surprisingly few put into action.

What do you do when you walk into a room or clearing and suddenly the
you hear gunshots, and if you're unlucky the screen might flash a bit
as you are hit by some unseen sniper? There are two basic responses to
this: first, the player looks around, trying to find the culprit, and
shoot back. Second, the player ducks back the way he came like a coward.

If you're the kind who does the first, then I commend you on your
bravery but I condemn you for stupidity. I admit I still do this
sometimes because my instinct is to kill kill! But chances are, this
course of action will get you killed. Why? Because of the simple fact
that you are already in your opponent's sights, while you have yet to
locate your opponent. This is NOT favorable at all, and unless your
opponent is using an underpowered gun or is stupid (or both), you will
die.

While under some circumstances it is to your benefit to quickly locate
the opponent and fireback, in general it is the more prudent approach
to back out quickly before you get your ass kicked. This is the
"Flee from Fire Technique." Trust me, it will keep you alive more
often than not.

When not to use this technique? There are some situations when you will
want to ignore this teaching. The first is when you are in an assault
squad trying to break into the enemy's defensive position. A good
example would be when playing CTs in CS_ASSAULT. In this case, death
is practically inevitable, you would best be served by having a
"I'll take as many of you down with me" mentality instead. But in
general, this technique is the rule if you want to survive.

Another instance you might want to ignore this rule is when you are
using an Arctic Sniper Rifle, and the opponent who took potshots at
you was using a Glock or something (you should be able to tell by
the sound of the gun). In this case, it is your call whether you
want to take the chance, but keep in mind your remaining health and,
of course, your confidence in your sniping skill.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.b10 - Backstabbing Technique (Uragiri)

When camping, it is best to camp with your other team members.
But in those instances when you are alone or don't want to camp
with team members, the usual camping tactics must be discarded
in favor of "uragiri" techniques.

If you are alone but choose to camp and hold a particular point,
chances are you won't survive against a wave of enemies unless
you are really good and/or using an Arctic. But if you don't have
an Arctic, you must resort to the less valorous backstab.
This should be discussed in detail in specific maps to point out
the good backstab points, but I will explain here the basic theory.

Backstabbing is done best with a good close-range weapon like
a shotgun, MP5, Desert Eagle, or Carbine. First find a secluded,
shadowy area where an opponent is likely to pass, but you are
not likely to be seen behind cover. Hide in your niche and
switch to your knife. This minimizes your visibility since the
knife is very short.

Now, when an enemy passes by, switch to your gun and riddle his
back with holes. Simple, no? It is easier said than done, but
with experience and knowledge of the best backstabbing points,
you can pull it off. When you've gained enough skill in this
technique, you will be able to spot the best backstabbing points
in a map immediately. In the future, I hope to give out specific
map strategies to point out these good backstab locations.

Just be sure not to do it all the time, because the next time you
do it your opponent may be ready. Never use the same backstab
location twice in a row. Move to other spots to outwit your
opponent. Teach him to fear the corners. When you've done that,
switch to the otherside so that when he checks the old corner,
he turns his back to you again. Happy backstabbing!
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.b10a -- Letting the Shadow Pass (Kage Yurutou)

This is an advanced modification of the backstab technique. Use it
when you expect a lot of enemies, and when you are very confident
in your hidden niche and your enemy's ignorance.

Most players go for the backstab immediately as soon as an enemy
passes by. This is fine, especially if the enemy is alone and has
a good probability of spotting you. But what if he has friends?

When camping in an unlikely position where the enemy is not
likely to check, and when there are a lot of them (at least two of
them passing you by), then it is often prudent to "let the shadow
pass;" that is, let the second guy (or the last guy if there are
more than two) get past you. ONLY then should you start shooting
at their backs.

This way, they will all have their backs turned to you! It is less
likely for them to fire back at you under these conditions. If you
had fired on the first guy, you might have killed him, but then
the guy right behind him would likely make minced meat out of you.

Have patience; if you weren't detected, then waiting a few seconds
won't hurt you. Premature firing will. After you make sure no one
else is coming, that's the when you shoot them all in the backs.

Of course, if you are detected, then you have no recourse but to
fire back and try to kill them before they kill you. It's just
the risk that a backstabber takes.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.b11a -- Baiting the Enemy

This technique was sent in by avielh, and I actually find it pretty
funny yet very sound. Basically, before you go camp to do an ambush,
you drop your secondary weapon in plain sight where the enemy is
likely to pass, as "bait."

Judging where the enemy is likely to come from, he will stop over
the weapon to examine it, maybe even to pick it up. If this
happens, you have the advantage of surprise as you jump out of
your camping spot (out of sight from where you think he will come)
and grab a quick kill.

This seems to work best with certain guns. As a terrorist, the
Dual Berettas, though expensive, are great because they look
very distinct and are especially coveted by CTs, who can't buy
it themselves. As a CT, maybe you could use the 5/7, but that
gun isn't in demand as much. You could also try using a Desert
Eagle, it's shiny and catches attention a lot, and many players
(myself included) would rather have it than the default gun.

Of course, don't use this trick too often.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.b11 - Hiding the Ghost (Yurei o Kakushite)

This is a simple technique you should always keep in mind. In CS,
as with just about all First Person 3D games, clipping (parts of
character models passing through walls) is a big issue. What this
means is that, if you stand next to a thin wall or door, parts of
you might clip through it, making you visible from the other side.
Needless to say, this makes you a great target for snipers and
rifles on the other side.

This is especially true for big guns with long barrels, like the
AWP. No gun gives your position away like the Arctic sniper. But
then, no gun takes advantage of this more than the Arctic. Just
be sure not to point your gun over a thin door or wall -- it'll
reveal you to any enemies on the other side. Try not to stick to
walls too closely, either.

I don't need to say this, but use this knowledge well to find
enemies clipping through walls! And when you do, be sure to hit
them with an AWP, Para, AK-47, or some other weapon with wall-
punching ability.

===============================================================================
5.c -- Offensive Techniques

These techniques were designed to kill, or help you while killing. They
will reduce the chance of you dying while you are attacking, while increasing
the mortality rate of your opponents. Combined with the defensive techniques
earlier, these techniques will help shape you into the ultimate warrior.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.c1 - Stationary Aiming

The most basic offensive technique is aiming while not moving. Those who
like camping or otherwise not moving around should master this technique --
such to the point that they can find the opponent's head on average in half
a second. Since you aren't moving, you have to learn to kill quickly before
your moving opponent hits you. This requires long hours of training to
acquire a fast reaction time.

One of the tricks to improve your stationary training is to keep your
mind focused and busy. Never allow your mind to stagnate. An assaulter
does this easily by constantly moving, but a camper can often forget when
he stays glued to one spot. That is why campers need mental training even
more than assaulters.

-----------------------------------------------------------
| Keeping your mind sharp is the key to stationary aiming |
-----------------------------------------------------------

Do not just think of anything, though. You must concentrate on the attack.
Focus is necessary, keeping your mind busy is not just a matter of thinking
random thoughts. If you think of just anything, it might distract your
concentration away from your aim. One good mental exercise to do while
camping is to mentally visualize how your opponent will look and move when
he does show up at the point you are guarding.

Another, simpler but more difficult technique to master is to be totally
aware of everything you see and hear. This will keep your mind busy and
keep you totally aware of every detail, heightening your senses and your
reaction time. This is a difficult technique to master, but if you do it
will increase the effectiveness of your camping a hundred fold.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.c2 - Hot and Cold Firing Technique

This is an advanced form of the stationary firing technique, which is very
useful for weapons that have low accuracy while moving. It is a combination
of defensive movement techniques and stationary firing. Basically, you side
step as usual when confronted by enemy fire. While dodging, you take aim,
and when your aim is true, you suddenly brake, stopping your movement
altogether, and fire. As soon as you fire, you move again, making yourself
once again a hard target.

This is a difficult technique to master and execute effectively, but when
you do it will increase your offensive and defensive capabilities
tremendously, especially while using single-shot low movement-accuracy
weapons like the AK-47, the FN Para and the Arctic.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.c2a -- Jump Aiming

This is an advanced form of the Hot and Cold Firing technique. You jump
to avoid enemy fire, and while in the air you are already searching for
your opponent. As soon as you land, you jam the trigger and smash your
opponent with precision accuracy. This is important because accuracy is
non-existent while in the air, and jumping is a very effective means of
confusing enemy fire. This technique works best with the Arctic, but also
works well with all the other weapons which have low accuracy while moving.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.c3 - Figure Eight Sidestep Technique

While Hot and Cold firing was developed to increase the offensive/defensive
capability of using low movement-accuracy weapons, the Figure Eight Side
Step, often erroneously called "circle strafing," was developed to increase
the attack and defense power of high movement-accuracy weapons like the MP5
and M4 Carbine. This technique is perfect for literally running circles
around your opponent while shooting holes in them. Basically, upon seeing
your opponent, you sidestep either left or right. At the same time, you
keep your cursor pointed straight at him, moving your mouse in the opposite
direction of your sidestep. In this way, you make a curving movement around
him, making yourself hard to hit while keeping him in your sights.

As with all techniques, this is easier said than done, and only practice
will make you a master of this technique. To complicate the matter, your
opponent may have the same bright idea. This technique is the main reason
why just standing or ducking in one place to shoot an opponent is so
dangerous. It is by far the most effective side-step technique in all the
FPS games because you also flank your opponent, as opposed to a simple
left-right sidestep. This technique is especially useful against snipers,
who often have low mouse sensitivity settings, making it harder for them
to turn all the way to follow your movement.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------
| While sidestepping, your shots tend to go in the opposite direction |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------

Because of this, you should adjust your aim slightly to the left
or right of your target, depending on which way you are moving.
If you sidestep left, aim a bit to the left, because your shot
will go a bit to the right, especially at longer distances.

Take note that when you stop sidestepping, your shots will still
be off to the left or right, if you were using auto-fire. It will
eventually correct itself, the rate varies on each weapon. Usually,
guns with lower movement accuracy correct slower. If you stop
shooting, it will correct almost instantaneously (so Burst Fire is
recommended).

Remember that those few precious moments while the aim is correcting
could mean the difference between life or death. Keep this in mind
while aiming with the Figure Eight technique.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.c3a -- Anti-Arctic Technique

The Arctic is the most dreaded weapon at range. All it takes is one hit, and
you're history. That is why many people have developed many anti-arctic
techniques to combat the feared AWP. While the most basic technique is to
just keep moving eratically, and close in on the sniper, where his Arctic
is not very useful, the best players have developed techniques to allow them
to fight the Arctic sniper on equal terms, even at range.

Fighting, duking it out with an arctic at range? Ridiculous! The way to go is
to zigzag towards them, steadily closing the distance, right? Wrong! While
this technique does work, it is very dangerous.

-----------------------------------------------------------------
| Moving forward decreases your sidewards velocity, thus making |
| it far easier for the arctic sniper to pick you off           |
-----------------------------------------------------------------

The alternative anti-arctic technique is to stay at range, and instead
devote all your movement ability to sidestepping directly left or right.
This way, no movement is wasted going forward or backward. Arguably, this
makes you a far more difficult target than someone zig-zagging forward,
trying to close the distance. While side-stepping, you must engage in
figure-eight sytle shooting, only you are not flanking towards the opponent.
Fire in short bursts of 3 or so bullets, and one of them should hit your
opponent and chip away at his life. As long as you keep moving left and
right erratically and in no set pattern, you have a chance of surviving as
your opponent's inaccurate Arctic will keep missing. This is by far the best
technique developed for combating those annoying snipers, but is very
difficult to master. Indeed, it is also very dangerous! Just remember that,
if your sniper opponent is very good, you'll probably die no matter what
technique you do. Thus, the best defense is often to just get out of sight
and stay out of sight!

There are other more advanced techniques to get around the problem,
and it involves using smoke grenades and flashbangs. But those are
advanced tactics which will be discussed later.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.c4 - Assault Weapon Sniping Technique

Most people like to think that sniper rifles are good for sniping, and
assault weapons are good for close combat. Period. No overlapping of
roles. However, the best assault players are also those who can use
their assault weapons for sniping at medium to long range when necessary.
In fact, some of the best assault players I know started off as snipers
to hone their aiming, and then went assault to showcase their skill.

At any rate, as an assault player you will be more effective if you can
fight at medium to long range with your weapon, and not just close range.
This is the reason why the shotgun should be left to the specialist who
only wants to fight at point-blank to close range. All the assault rifles,
and many of the SMGs, do well at medium to long range. Learning to use
them here is the key to becoming a good, well-rounded CS player.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Sniping with assault guns requires skill in burst or single-fire shooting |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

You cannot expect to use auto-fire when fighting at range. You will simply
be wasting ammo. Instead learn to aim at your opponent and shoot in small
bursts. You will eventually wear out his armor and life and kill him, if he
doesn't kill you first.

If your opponent is not using a sniper rifle, you are better off being
stationary and ducking while doing this technique. If your opponent insists
on side-stepping while trying to hit you, you will be at the advantage at
this range, because his shots will hit you far less often, whereas you will
be shooting aiming for his neck area, and your shots are far more accurate.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
| When fighting at close range, the Figure Eight style is more effective. |
| When fighting at mid to long range, ducking and sniping is better.      |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

===============================================================================
The previous offensive techniques were based on the defensive movement
techniques discussed earlier. However, like defense, the most potent
offensive techniques are the ones which mold your state of mind. They
are mind-based, mental techniques. Getting that agressive, killer instinct
is the fundamental skill needed that is more effective than all the
physical techniques metioned earlier.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.c5 - Perpetual Motion Agressiveness Technique

This is the offensive counterpoint of the Continuous Movement Defense
technique. The ultimate goal here is to stay in constant motion, in order
to keep the mind perpetually sharp. Assaulters practice this technique
almost unconsciously, as it goes hand-in-hand with their practice of
assault. However, whereas the defensive movement technique's main
purpose is to avoid getting flanked by the enemy and prevent making yourself
an easy target, the Perpetual Motion Agression is focused to keeping your
mind sharp while hunting out every single enemy you see.

You want to get into a mindset where you are like a hunter, continously
sniffing the air for the opponent. At the smallest sign of a target, you
fire immediately, quickly and precisly, with lethal results. Many players
achieve this mindset unconsciously, as a result of die-hard assaulting.
But if you're not a true-bred assaulter, this mindset will not come to
you naturally, and you must make an effort to slip into this kind of
mindset. Again, your mental condition is the most important component of
fighting; be sure to slip into this mindset whenever you are attacking,
and you will surely increase your fighting level significantly.

---------------------------------
| Weed out hesitation and doubt |
---------------------------------

"To be human is to know the fear of death, yet keep on fighting."
   -- Gau Ban, Shadow Skill.

There is no room in your mind for hesitation and doubt. These two will
poison your resolve and drastically weaken your fighting skill. Don't
dwell on the fact that you might be at the bottom of the kills score,
or that you're about to face the high scorer, or that you only have
5 life left. You must commit everything to the attack, and believe in
yourself. That way, you will perform much better.

While adopting a more defensive technique is prudent when your life is
low, you must never allow yourself to succumb to the fear of death. As
long as you are alive, you must continue to strive to fight and kill
your opponent.

"The Kuruda Mercenary who is still standing, cannot be defeated."
   -- Vow of the Kuruda Mercenary, Shadow Skill

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.c6 - Find the Weakpoint

"There is nothing cowardly about my technique at all. To win a fight,
you must attack your opponent's weak point."
   -- Saitou Hajime, Rurouni Kenshin

This mental offense technique is very difficult to master. You need to
get a feel for your enemy's fighint habits and tendencies. You have to
be able to strike when they are most vulnerable. It is very hard to
determine this in a computer game like CS, but it is possible.

The easiest weakpoint for you to target is your opponent's reloading
habit. Catching your opponent while he is reloading or out of ammo is
the ultimate coup de grace which allows for a no-risk, easy kill. By
watching out for when your opponent tends to reload, and by intently
listening to the amount of fire he shoots out with his weapons, you
can determine when he is vulnerable for an out and out charge. It is
indeed difficult to be right all the time, but even if you just get it
right half the time, you are already proficient in this skill.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.c6a -- Finding the Blind Spot

"I have found her weakness! She is still unused to the lovely
eye-patch, which obstructs her view from the left!"
   -- Koinosuke, Jubei-chan

Another use of this technique is determining the right time when your
opponent plans to strike, and charging before him. The benefit of this
is simple. If your opponent plans to move forward, his attention is
diverted straight ahead, and he is less likely to be able to respond
to threats to his sides. The trick here is to immediately charge forward
and flank your opponent as he is about to charge forward. Thus, you
can make use of a Figure Eight flanking technique to get to his side,
his "blind spot." Another way to do it aside from the Figure Eight is
to do a Jump Aim technique and leap to his side. On average, opponents
are less likely to hit you while you are jumping to his side at close
range, and while you are on the way you must face him immediately, and
upong landing (or even before then if you are close enough) let loose
your bullets.

One of the best ways to execute this is at the intersection of two
corridors. The Figure Eight variation works well with the high move
accuracy weapons like the M4 and MP5, while the jumping variation of
technique works exceptionally well with close range weapons like the
shotguns and also the M4. Upon spotting each other in a corridor, you
quickly dodge to cover after firing some shots. As you have hidden,
listen closely whether your opponent has decided to pursue you or not.
If he is pursuing, you simply time your move as he is about to round
the corridor or obstacle, and you can easily jump or sidestep to his
blind side, finishing him off.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.c7 - Money Flash Awareness Technique (Kane Kae Sen)

One of the largest problems of many players is that they keep on firing
even after their enemy is dead. This accomplishes nothing but waste ammo
and keep you unprepared for your next opponent. There are three ways to
determine whether you have killed your opponent: the old-fashioned look
at him and if blood spurts out he's dead way, looking at the who killed
who text at the upper right, and looking at your money.

Among these three ways, the last, your money, is the best option. Why?
The graphical approach is hard because players can bleed a whole lot
and still live, and it takes a while for their death animation to kick
in. The who-killed-who text is instantaneous, but not very reliable
because it displays anyone who's been killed; it is not necessarily
your enemy.

------------------------------------------------------
| Watch your money at the lower right of the screen. |
| If it flashes green, your enemy is toast.          |
------------------------------------------------------

The most reliable measure is your money, which pops up a bright green
the moment you kill your opponent -- by far the best indicator to
determine whether you've killed an enemy or not. The only drawback is
that if your money is at $16000, it won't register. But that's a minor
quibble, and if your money is at $16000 that means you must be having
a winning streak anyway, no? This just serves as more incentive not to
hoard up that money and spend it on worthwhile guns.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.c8 - Stealth Technique

One important thing to remember in CS is that your footfalls can give you
away. This only happens while running, which most people do all the time.
However, if you simply walk, you will not make a sound. This means you
can conceal your presence from enemies!

The applications are varied, but when walking, it is easier to sneak up
on people and knife them in the back for bonus points. You can keep
your presence unknown while hidden behind a crate, waiting for your
opponent to pass by. Regardless, keeping silent has its uses.

To stay silent, use the "walk" button. You can configure this in your
controls. If you want to bind it, the console command is "+SPEED".
Take note that you must hold the button down; commands with "+" at
the start usually remain active only while you press the button.
To be even more silent, crouch. But this makes you move far too
slowly; you may have trouble catching your quarry.

-----------------------------------------------------------------
| Be sure to crouch while climbing ladders. This will eliminate |
| any noise, without slowling you down at all.                  | 
-----------------------------------------------------------------

This is assuming autorun is turned on. If autorun is off, using the
speed command will make you run instead. I forget the command to
turn autorun on and off at this moment. However, the default is on,
and unless some weirdo messed with it (I hope not you!), there is no
reason for it to be off. You will be doing far more running in this
game than walking, after all.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.c9 - Team First, You Last

This is another technique for unscrupulous people who believe in
"better you than me." When assaulting, it is often the case that
the first person spotted is the first one shot. Well, since this
is the case 90% of the time, you would be a fool to go in, guns
blaring, right?

This is the sad truth of team assaults into enemy defensive
territory. Unless you are all very good and lucky, and your
opponents are lousy shots, some of you will die whenever you
force your way through a position.

The trick, of course, is to hang back and wait for a teammate
to take the first step. Then follow in behind him. This should
increase your survivability. Take care not to follow directly
behind him in a line; if your opponent is using an arctic, the
shot will kill both of you. Even if he isn't, an opponent
waiting in ambush will tend to shoot with a little reaction
delay, meaning he will hit YOU behind your teammate even if he
intended to hit your teammate.

Hmm, maybe I shouldn't have published this technique; maybe now
no one will want to charge in first, hehehe. Still, not to
worry. It never ceases to amaze me how many people are willing
to be the sacrificial lamb and go first. And don't think only
the newbies do this! The best players are also willing to charge
in first: the reason is because this means they get first dibs
in killing the enemy. And they have the skill to back it up.

In the end, it's a trade-off between survivability and kills.
You'll find that the best players have no qualms walking straight
in with their MP5s, and they can kill one or two opponents easily
without themselves dying. You decide what kind of player you are:
the craven coward or the valiant vanguard.



===============================================================================
5.d -- Dirty Tricks

"How far are you willing to go for $1,000,000?"
   -- Sales Pitch, Survivor

A win is a win, no matter how you achieved it. Machiavellian tactics
will get you far in CS, although you might have to face social
repercussions afterwards! ^_^  I will list here the basic concept of
all the dirty tactics I know. If I were to write a specific map guide,
I would be able to add more dirty techniques, but for now you will have
to content yourself with the general, all-purpose tricks that work on
most maps. Just remember that the end justifies the means, and that
this is just a game! How far are you willing to go to win? With these
techniques you can win, but you may be called an asshole for doing so.

These "cheats" are "legal cheats," that is, they do not require the
server to have sv_cheats enabled, or any kind of special software.
You can use them on almost all servers, provided the console is enabled,
the desktop isn't locked and most importantly the server did not disable
the command. Most of the things I write here, though, are considered
"unfair" by most players who know about them.

I will not enumerate the "true cheats," the ones that require
sv_cheats to be on. If you even want to use these cheats, you are
either bored and want to have fun in a non-serious environment, or are
a total loser. In either case, go somewhere else.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.d1 - Adjusting Light Gamma

The Half Life engine has a lot of naturally dark spots, and the best way
to get around this is by adjusting the light gamma! While CS is supposed
to have some internal control over its light gamma, I've never gotten it
to work. Thus, the alternative is to change your Windows video card
settings manually! Of course this varies from computer to computer, but
in general you simply need to left click on the Windows desktop, click
on the properties, and click on the videocard display settings. Find the
light gamma, pump it up, and you'll be seeing into those dark shadows in
no time! The only drawback is that the game looks uglier from the excessive
brightness. And of course, snow-tile maps like Tundra are an eyesore.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.d2 - X-Ray Vision

Well, not exactly. However, you will be able to turn off immaterial objects
like trees, bridges, vines, and so on. This trick is especially useful in
DE_AZTEC, where the bridge can obstruct your view of the enemy, if you are
below it and they above it, and vice versa. In CS_ESTATE, it will turn off
the trees and let you see right through them.

Simply type in your console:

   GL_ALPHAMIN 1

I like to bind this command to a key, as well as a command to undo it.
"GL_ALPHAMIN 0" will undo it, or you can opt to do the "sparse" approach;
the bigger the number, the less dense the obstacle will be, as long as you
set the limit to 1 and do not actually reach it. That is, "GL_ALPHAMIN .999"
will make the object less visible than "GL_ALPHAMIN 0" but still keep it
visible unlike "GL_ALPHAMIN 1" which turns it off completely.

Take note that you WILL still feel the object. It is still there, you simply
cannot see it. Thus, you can still cross the bridge, even if you do not see
it. That's why I like the .999 option, because it lets you see the object
and thus not forget that it's there, but it will be quite ghostly, such that
you can easily see beyond it.

Consideration: Take note that while most people I know are okay with trick,
there are many who aren't. Since it gives a big advantage in some places
(like in DE_AZTEC), this is a trick which you should use only if you know
others are okay with it.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.d3 - Super Figure Eight Sidestepping

Ever wonder how your opponents can sidestep around you so easily? Well, the
reason why is because they are using the speed-modification commands. This
is a bit of a misnomer: they don't actually make you faster, as the server
often locks the rate at which you can move. Their real use is to allow you
to move diagonally. This means side stepping your opponent is a lot easier.

By default, you can either move forward and backwards or sideways, but not
both at the same time. But with these three commands, you are allowed to
move diagonally. Simply type in these lines:

CL_BACKSPEED 9999
CL_FORWARDSPEED 9999
CL_SIDESPEED 9999

And you will suddenly be zipping diagonally, you'll wonder how you used to
do without it! This is the most "legal" cheat and is used by most people.
The number I used is arbitrary; it need not be 9999. The point is to make
them all equal so that your sidespeed works at the same rate as your
forward and back speeds. The number should also be big enough to match with
the normal movement rate.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.d4 - Team Jumps

This is easily the most abused team-technique method to gain an advantage.
Most Counter Strike maps have a spot or perch that is excellent for sniping
or otherwise gaining a tactical advantage. These spots, however, are often
out of the reach of a normal crouch-jump. The good part is, if a player is
crouching down, you can actually jump on top of him, and use him as a
stepping stone to get to higher places. With enough concerted effort, it is
actually possible to jump on someone who jumped on someone to get onto even
higher places. The potential to get to tactical places is practically
unlimited; get a friend to crouch for you whenever you want to get to a
high place and you'll immediately get a tactical advantage.

This technique is often blantanly used in many maps. The CTs do it a lot in
CS_ITALY to get to the roofs, the CTs also did it in CS_MANSION to get on
top of the TVs. The scariest technique is in CS_ARABSTREETS, to get to the
roof. Terrorists do it in DE_DUST to plant the bomb, in DE_AZTEC to get on
top of the sneaky crate, in CS_ARABSTREETS to snipe from the building top,
and so on. The potential is limited only to your imagination.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.d4a -- Hostage Jumps

While most players know about the Team Crouch jumps, less people know about
the Hostage Jump. This is the one dirty trick that gives terrorists a
supreme advantage in CS maps. It lets a terrorist get to impossible tactical
positions by himself, and with the help of a team mate, he can get to
practically any high ledge on the map.

It's simple. First use a hostage to get him to follow you. Position him
underneath, next to the ledge you want to get up to. Then, from an elevated
position (like the head of a crouching team mate), jump onto the head of
the hostage. Be careful! This is the tricky part. You have to get on his
head, and keep your balance to stay there. It's harder than it sounds, but
once you've mastered the trick you should be able to do it easily. Once
on top of the hostage, keep jumping repeatedly. As you jump, the hostage
will "follow" you up, giving you a surface from your elevated position to
jump again! As you do, the hostage goes up again, and so on and so forth.
You can keep going up indefinitely with this technique, thus allowing you to
scale any wall. Once you're on a position higher than the wall you want to
get over, just jump forward and you're there! The best part is that you have
a hostage with you, making it terribly difficult for the CTs to win by
rescuing the hostage. Worse comes to worst, you can just cop-out and win
the cheesy way by hiding out at your inaccessible spot with your hostage and
waiting for the time to run out.

This trick may give the terrorist a strong surprise advantage, but it is not
an earth-shattering one, and certainly you need some skill to pull it off.
As such, I don't mind using this cheat, and a good opponent can pick you off
no matter what. So do what you must, and it's fun doing this to hear the
curse of your opponent as you kill them from the most absurd places. One of
my favorite places to use this technique is in the central building next to
the bridge in CS_ITALY. Hardly anyone expects you to get up there.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.d5 - Sound Binds

This is another cheap trick that only works on a LAN, or where your opponent
can otherwise hear the sound coming from your computer. The point is to
mislead an opponent who listens carefully to sound in order to derive his
strategy. What you do is order your computer to play a specific sound when
it's not supposed to, thus misleading your acutely-eared opponent.

For instance, in CS_ITALY, there is radio which plays the tenor opera sound.
A CT hearing a terrorist's computer with that sound will logically assume
that the terrorist is in their base, when in actuality he could be somewhere
else, waiting for the CT to turn his back to him as he enters the house.

Or you could play the sound of an Arctic shooting. As you supposedly "shoot,"
your opponent would expect that you are rechambering your gun, and thus he
will jump out to attack you, only to be shot as you fire your real shot.

The possibilities are varied, but the point is to mislead your opponent by
making him think that you are doing something you are not. To do this, bind
a specific sound to a key, so that whenever you press that key, the sound
comes out.

For instance, to bind the opera sound, you would type:
   BIND "G" "PLAY AMBIENCE\OPERA"

Each time you press g, your computer will play the opera.

To bind the sound of the arctic, type:
   BIND "B" "PLAY WEAPONS\AWP1"

You can check out all the sound files available in the CStrike directory
under SOUND. Of course, these tricks don't always work, and depend largely
on how much your opponent relies on his sense of hearing. And of course,
it won't work over the Internet.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.d6 - Autoaim

No, I do not use autoaim, and neither should you. In my opinion, using
autoaim takes away a lot of the spirit and purpose of playing CS. Further,
it seriously damages community spirit because legit none-autoaim players
often feel really bad about someone who's killing them easily without
exerting much effort. Autoaim is simply a cheap option which has no place
in a world where the main point is to aim and shoot at people.

Turn auto-aim off. You'll feel much better for it. Just turn it off in
the config panel. There's also a command to turn it off, "SV_AIM 0".

But if you must use auto-aim, you can turn it on with "SV_AIM 1". Take
note, though, that many servers disable auto-aim on purpose, so typing
that a million times won't do a thing.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.d7 - Smoke no More Technique (Kemuri Muyougiri)

"Smoke is the single most powerful barrier in anime. When smoke
is present, nothing, bar nothing, not even a kamehameha from
Super Saiyan 4 Gokou, will do even the most infinetisimal amount
of damage to the enshrouded target."
   -- Me, paraphrasing my friend who watches too much Dragon Ball

Nothing is more annoying to a camping AWP sniper than a smoke
grenade tossed right in his face. Well, okay, there are some
things, but that is near the top of the list.

There is a way around it, though. This doesn't actually get rid
of smoke, but it reduces the effect of smoke, making it easier
for you to see through it.

Simply type:
   MAX_SMOKEPUFFS 0
   FASTSPRITES 1

Actually, the first command I am not sure how it works, but it
seems to decrease the amount of smoke marginally. The more important
command is the second, which changes the appearance of smoke
entirely. The default, fastsprites 0, is the kind of smoke you
are probably used to: the grey, billowing smoke which obstructs
vision.

Set to 1, the smoke will appear as a white colored mass which is
more transparent and easier to see through. More importantly, it
speeds up your machine because it is easier to render!

Some people like to set fastsprites to 2; the smoke appears as a
very ugly, low-res dark opaque sprite which totally obscures
your view. However, because it is so low-res, the edges do not
overlap well, providing PERFECT visibility within the cracks. I
don't find this too helpful for the precision I need when using
an Arctic, but it is good for verifying the presence of the
enemy in the smoke.

It is up to you which setting you want to use.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.d8 - Paralyzing Smoke Technique

Alright, this technique won't actually help you win. Actually, it
will probably contribute to your loss, as well as ostracize you
from your team.

By throwing the smoke grenade at an immobile teammate's face, you
can actually make it stick there, and your teammate will be
permanently unable to move for the rest of the round. While this
in incredibly hilarious, it is also very difficult to do. Your
teammate must not be moving for you achieve this effect. You must
get the angle and distance just right. I can't relate it further,
you'll simply have to figure it out yourself. I myself cannot
achieve this trick all the time.

WARNING: do not use this technique when MP_FRIENDLYFIRE is
on. I don't think your teammate will mind the 3,000 bucks
he'll lose after the humiliation you put him through.

Theoretically, it is also possible to use this technique on an
opponent who is camping and whom you have managed to sneak up on.
Of course, there would be no point to attempt this difficult and
dangerous maneuver other than for style points because it would
be so much easier for you to just do a headshot, or even stab
the hapless opponent. Still, if you want a good laugh....

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.d9 - Mimic Technique

This is easily the dirtiest, most despicable "legal" trick
available. I actually HATE this technique, I condemn it when
I find it, and I don't like using it because it destroys the
spirit of the game.

Basically, this technique will make you look like a member of
the opposing team. You'll still be part of your team, but you
look just like one of them. This is done by skin-swapping, and
it is PERFECTLY LEGAL in most servers.

Since I really detest this cheat, I will not tell you how to
do it. MWAHAHAHAHHAHAAA!!!

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

These are the different cheap, dirty tricks that I have picked up from
playing Counter Strike over the years. I may have missed some techniques,
if I remember them I'll include them in a suceeding version. While some
techniques should always be used, like the gamma trick and the diagonal
movement trick, some should not always be used, lest the enemy learn it
and get used to it.

"Magic is magic only because it is rare, even magic becomes ordinary
when it is used every day."
  -- Raistlin Majere, The Soulforge


This is true of the team and hostage jumps, and especially with the
sound bind tricks. Use them sparingly, and they'll catch your opponents
by surprise more often.


===============================================================================
                    VI. COUNTER STRIKE ETIQUETTE
===============================================================================

Right, I'm gonna keep this short and sweet, because this guide is about
tactics, not manners. Anyway, I've been under duress lately about the
various dirty tricks I published in this guide. Well, cheats have been
a problem in on-line games for ages, and for many (myself included) they
detract from the gaming experience. Some of the cheats I published help
augment your skill, but some are annoying and take the fun of the game away.
By publishing them, I sought to inform people about such cheats, so that
they know if someone is short-changing them. I had also hoped that people's
wisdom and integrity would stop them from using the more "evil" cheats.
But apparently people used them anyway; I can't count the number of people
writing in asking me how to do the Mimic Technique.

Well, many of these "cheats," I feel, are quite legitimate and acceptable
in normal play. Some people, though, would disagree. In the end, all I have
to say is this:

------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Be sure to ask the people you're playing with what "cheats" they are |
| okay with. If they don't like a cheat and ask you to stop, stop.     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------

Be considerate enough to respect another person's preference of playing.
If you prefer to "cheat," I think you should give priority to the "regular"
way of playing without cheats.

Many of the "dirty tricks" I gave, though, are accepted by most people.
For instance, just about everyone is fine with the CL_XSPEED codes. Many
people don't mind the GL_ALPHAMIN code. And hostage/team jumps are really
part of the game.

But some cheats, like the mimic technique, really detract from the spirit
of good, clean fun. I feel that such cheats should not even be used.

As such, I was thinking of dividing the "dirty tricks" into two: a
"good" tricks section and a "bad" tricks section. What would happen
is that the "good" tricks, like the speed codes and the jumps, will
be explained and put into proper context. The "bad" tricks, though,
I would simply explain for the sake of informing people that it is
possible, but I will NOT detail how to do them. I'm not sure if I'll
implement this, but for now I will be taking out the Mimic cheat
altogether!

Anyway, you will see my stand on which "cheats" I feel are acceptable,
and which are not. Regardless, you should always ask people if they
are okay with a cheat or not.

This is my stand:

"Good" Tricks:
--------------
 Light Gamma
 Super Figure Eight Sidestepping
 X-Ray Vision
 Team Jumps
 Hostage Jumps
 Smoke no More
 Paralyzing Smoke
 Sound Binds

"Bad" Tricks:
-------------
 Mimic Technique
 Aimbots
 Autoaim
 Switching to the enemy team when friendlyfire is on and shooting them
 Crashing the server for any reason


More than anything else, always keep in mind that Counter Strike is
a game, and in a game all players are supposed to have fun. Cheating
can sometimes add fun to a game, but more often it takes it away.

I supposed if you don't mind compromising any principles or your
self-integrity, it's alright to cheat "discreetly," or using a
cheat your enemey is unaware of. In such a case, at least you
don't spoil your enemy's fun. Just don't get caught.

But take note, when playing a game of skill like Counter Strike,
cheating really hurts you more than your opponent. Your opponent may
not have as much fun because of you, but you suffer a worse fate: by
relying on cheats, you cheapen your own skills and your own self-
integrity. To me, that is a fate worse than death.

Kindly keep these things in mind whenever you play.


Finally, if you want to take steps against cheating, visit this
website and support their cause:

   http://www.punkbuster.com

===============================================================================
                   VII. WEAPON SPECIFIC TECHNIQUES
===============================================================================

You've learned the general techniques to make you a good player. I've
thrown in some general weapon techniques as well in the previous sections,
but now we're going to go in-depth with the weapons, and hopefully you'll
learn uses for each weapon that you never thought of.

Unfortunately, I am not a master of all the weapons, so I cannot give
in-depth knowledge of each weapon's techniques. But some weapons I have
been using since day one, and I have mastered them (in my own way). For
now, I'll concentrate on the weapons I know best, and hopefully soon I
will outline how to use all the weapons. Anyone who knows how to use a
weapon better than I do, you're welcome to write in.

===============================================================================
7.i -- Weapon Archetype Guide

While each gun has its specific nuances which apply to itself alone and
make it unique, many guns share similar qualities. From my observations,
I believe that certain guns serve as "archetypes" for a particular playing
style. These are the guns which serve as a "model" for using other the
other guns.

That is, other guns are used in basically the same way as the archetype.
As such, you can refer to the guide for the archetypes when using the
sub-guns. As I see it, here is how the weapon playing styles are broken down:

Sniper Archetype: AI Arctic Warfare Magnum
Assault Archetype: H&K MP5 Navy
Shotgun Archetype: Benneli M3 Super90
Sporadic Archetype: Kalashnikov AK-47
Pistol Archetype: H&K USP .45 Tactical

The Sniper Archetype is defined by a style which kills at long range
with as few shots as possible. It is single fire and has a slow
firing rate, and is of limited use close range.

The Assault Archetype is characterized by good close range combat,
with high rate of fire, auto fire, large clips but limited long-range
capability. It is the antithesis of the Sniper Archetype.

The Shotgun Archetype refers to a style which is strong at close range,
with single shot increments. Similar in use to the Assault Archetype, 
but differing in philosophy and style: emphasis is on single shot 
instead of auto-fire, and is best for solo encounters at close to 
mid-range, with no use whatsoever at long range.

The Sporadic Archetype does not do particularly well in Assault or
Sniping. Thus this style requires you to make up for the short-comings
in either class by finding the middle ground. It is your job to find
those "spots" where the gun excels in, and stick to those conditions.
Often, this means using ambushes from cover to avoid enemy fire
(guerrilla tactics).

The Pistol Archetype is debilitated by single fire triggers, thus
requiring repeated clicks to attack. This limits attack power. Of
course, only pistols fall under this archetype.

Aside from the archetypal guns, all the other guns for the most part fall
somewhere in between all these archetypes. Still, they are usually most
closely associated with one. Familiarity with the Archetypes makes it
possible for you to use the associated guns quite proficiently by applying
the same principles that govern the Archetype.

For instance, if you are good with the Arctic, the Sniper Archetype weapon,
you could use many of the principles for the Scout, which falls under the
Sniper Archetype.

Here is the main distinction of which weapons go where. They are listed
in order of closeness to the Archetype.

SNIPER:
------------------
AI Arctic Warfare Magnum (4-6)
Steyr Scout (4-5)
H&K G3 Sniper (4-7) -- about equal mix Sniper and Sporadic
Sig 552 Commando (4-8) --  almost more Sporadic than Sniper 

SPORADIC:
------------------
Kalashnikov AK-47 (4-1)
H&K UMP45 (3-5)
FN M249 Para (5-1)
Ingram Mac-10 (3-4)-- very close to the Assault

SHOTGUN:
------------------
Benelli M3 Super (2-1)
Benelli XM1014 (2-2) -- about equal mix Shotgun and Assault


ASSAULT:
------------------
H&K MP5-Navy (3-1)
Steyr Tactical Machine (3-2) -- has Pistol-class attack power
Colt M4 Carbine (4-3) -- about equal mix Assault and Sporadic
FN P90 (3-3) -- also has Sporadic tendencies
Sig 550 Commando (4-2) -- also uses Sniper techniques
Steyr Aug (4-4) -- also uses Sniper techniques

PISTOL:
------------------
H&K USP .45 Tactical (1-1)
Sig P228 Sauer (1-4)
Glock18  (1-2) -- Shotgun in burst mode 
FN Five-Seven (1-6) -- borders on Sporadic
Desert Eagle (1-3) -- strong Sporadic tendencies
Dual Beretta (1-5) -- strong Assault tendencies


===============================================================================
7A.  AI Arctic Warfare/Magnum  [4-6]
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Why Use the Arctic?
-----------------------------------------

"I am invincible! No one can defeat my shadow skill!
My one single blow is... Invincible!"
  -- Kuruda Style Annihalation Technique: Martial Language

The Arctic is easily the single most-feared weapon in the game. Why?
Oneshot. That's why. All it takes is one shot, and you're dead. Any
time. Anywhere. No other gun can claim the same.


Weaknesses
----------------------------------
Keep these in mind carefully when you use the Arctic. You must
play to compensate for these weaknesses.

1.) Very heavy. It is the second slowest gun, and you will be an
easy target while moving because of it.

2.) Inaccurate. The Arctic is the most inaccurate gun in the game!
Yes! I know it's a shock. You'd think a sniper rifle would be
the most accurate gun in the game. Think again, the Arctic is
the only gun with a likelihood of the shot going in a greater
than 45 degree angle from where you're pointing. And it's
actually very likely.

3.) Lastly, it's damn expensive. If your team keeps losing
consistently, you won't be able to buy it all the time.


=======================================
The [gulay] School of Sniping
=======================================

The following treatise will teach you how to fight the way the [gulay]
clan fights with the arctic sniper! This is a very subjective portion of
this guide, and details my preferred personal fighting style. There are
a few techniques here which are universal, but mostly they are how I
fight. There are other ways to fight, but for now listen to what I have
to say. ^_^


Focus
----------
In order to effectively use the Arctic, you need one thing:
unwavering mental concentration. This is the most basic
aspect of Arctic use. You must keep focused on each and
every single shot. Remember: your one single blow is
invincible. You must strive to hit the enemy with each
shot. More than any other weapon, the Arctic requires
steady, steely concentration.

The warrior whose mind is scattered does not deserve to
wield the Arctic.

------------------------------------------
How to Use the Arctic: General Principles
==========================================

Use that Scope
---------------------
To compensate for the gun's terrible inaccuracy, you must as
much as possible use the sniper scope. Without the zoom, your
accuracy is the worst in the game, bar none. Your shots will
go to the left, to the right, up or down, anywhere but where
your crosshair is pointed. But at 2x or 4x zoom, accuracy is
upped significantly, and you can expect pin-point accuracy as
long as you are not moving, swimming, or on a ladder. Remember
this well.

This was not always the case. Before beta 6, the Arctic was
fairly accurate, perhaps as accurate as the FN Para. Because
of this, the most dreaded creature was born: the Arctic
Assault Sniper. There is nothing more terrifying than a
rampaging agent who can run amongst the MP5s and M4s and
kill with a single shot ALL the time. Since the Arctic
Assault Sniper was so scary, the CS team apparently decided
to tweak and downgrade the Arctic considerably.

Know this: we Arctic warriors were once the proud and confident
in our power; but the CS team took it all away from us! One day
we will restore ourselves to our former glory and take what is
our birthright! MWAHAHAHAHAHAHHAAAA!!!

Still, even with the scope, accuracy is not %100. You will still
miss far too often for my liking. Damn the tweaks that watered
down the Arctic!


Stay Alive
-----------------
How about the price tag? In order to afford the $4750, you MUST
pinch pennies. One thing I used to do was not buy armor.
This is alright IF and only if you plan to camp all day
long. If you plan to go assault, this is a risky proposition,
and dying is very scary: you wouldn't want to lose that AWP.

"If you think like that, the hitokiri in you will well up.
Live your life, Kenshin!"
  -- Hiko Seijuro, Rurouni Kenshin

The single most important thing to keep in mind when using
the Arctic: play to live! You must play as if dying is not
an option. You have to draw on your inner strength to steel
yourself against death. Because dying means kissing your
expensive rifle goodbye.

If you want to be an Arctic master, you must not take any
unnecessary risks. You have to be sure that you can survive
to fight the next round with your weapon intact.

As an Arctic player, you must save up money a lot. You, more than
any other player, want to have lots of spare money in reserve. Try
to save up your money however which way you can, and staying alive
is the best way to do that.

Camping
----------------
Camping with an Arctic is the most logical choice. You can
pick the place to defend, preferably one with a long narrow space
for that enemies have to pass through. You want to find a place
that is difficult to reach except by passing through a long,
empty passage without cover. Good examples of such places are
the bridge and the ends of the tunnel in DE_DUST, the sewer
passage in the DE_AZTEC, and the ends of the mousehole in
CS_MANSION. If you are going to camp with the Arctic, stick
with it. Don't second doubt yourself and think of leaving; this
only serves to waver your concentration, and when an opponent
does pass by you will miss. Further, leaving your post means
that an opponent can go through unmolested. You don't want that.

However, the AWP is not a camping only weapon. Assault sniping is
still possible, but only under certain conditions. Being an
Arctic master isn't just about having a steady enough mouse arm
to shoot at anyone you see. It's about playing to make those
conditions possible. More on this later.

For now, just remember this: camping is the obvious choice for
the sniper, but the obvious choice is not always the best choice.
You may keep yourself alive, but hiding out in your base like a
chicken more often than not compromises team strategy and makes
you lose in the end. The true use of the Arctic is to control
the key points of the map, not to camp out in fear at your base.
(although admittedly in some maps your base is a key point)

Stay Away
------------------
You are using a sniper rifle that has poor fighting ability up
close, but lethal power afar. Needless to say, keep your distance
from your opponents. While you could try to shoot them from up
close, there is a good chance (about 50%) that your shot will not
go where it is supposed to, unless you zoom. But if you use your
zoom scope, your peripheral vision will be severely limited,
making it hard to track someone doing a figure eight around you.
Worse, since your perspective is magnified, your zoomed view
will not reflect the usual sensitivity setting you are used to.
It is as if your sensitivity was effectively increased while you
are in zoom. The greater the zoom, the greater the perceived
increase. Finally, your movement will seem sluggish, for the
same reason.

------------------------------------------
| Bottom line: stay away from your enemy |
------------------------------------------

Body Aiming
---------------------
The AWP requires a special aiming philosophy. This is the only
gun where you can justifiably break the general rule of aiming
for the neck area, and aim for whatever body part is convenient.
This is because the AWP can kill in one shot, whether you hit
the hand or the foot or even the finger nail. When aiming with
the AWP, go for the exactly middle of the body. This center
provides you the easiest target. Do not even think of going for
a head shot; you don't need to. If you get one, that's well and
good, but it is totally unnecessary.

Perhaps the biggest argument for aiming at the center is to
allow for the gun's inaccuracy. Since the AWP is so innacurate,
the shot will often go a bit up or down, left or right. To
maximize your chance of hitting a target, aim for the center,
so that minor deviations have a better chance of catching a
peripheral body part.


---------------------------------------------
These are general Arctic-using tips any player who wants to go
sniping should know. Now, I will tell more of my personal fighting
style when using the Arctic.
---------------------------------------------


Advanced [gulay] Style Arctic Tactics
=============================================

Aiming Philosophy
------------------
As an AWP sniper, you must first learn that aiming is the fundamental
aspect of sniping. Unlike the other guns which can get away with
hap-hazard aiming (just pointing in the general direction and pressing
the trigger), the Arctic requires precision aiming because you fire
only one shot at a time. Unlike the other sniper rifles, though, which
still generally go for the head, body aiming is the basic principle of
the Arctic. You know where to aim, and you know that you only have one
shot to do it. But there are two aiming methods that you must know to
truly understand Arctic sniping philosophy.

The first method is called Mouse Aiming: following the target with
the mouse. This may sound like common sense, and actually, it is.
But you must see the difference of this with the other method,
which I call "Glide Aiming." Glide Aiming is keeping your mouse
steady, and aiming at a target by sidestepping left and right.
You rely on your lateral movement to aim, not your cursor movement.

Glide movement is great for learning to snipe while side-stepping,
thus allowing you to evade enemy attacks. The drawback is that this
has a funny effect on your accuracy: it moves your shot a little to
the direction in which you are moving. By mastering this change in
trajectory, you will be able to compensate, and this technique of
aiming is especially accurate at long range.

However, do not use this technique! Or at least, don't get too used
to it. [gulay] aiming philosophy and sniping tactics is based on the
first method: mouse aiming. The more advanced techniques of the
school require that you master this method. This is because the
style's philosophy is "shoot as quickly as possible, then run away."
Glide Aiming has a disadvantage in that it takes a bit longer for
you to line-up the shot. That crucial time it takes to aim is its
downfall, the crucial time that a [gulay] sniper takes advantage of.
Aim with your mouse, not your feet.

Mouse Sensitivity
-----------------

Mouse sensitivity is important for all CS players, but doubly so for
the Arctic sniper. As a [gulay] sniper, you must accustom yourself to
a particular sensitivity setting. This is vital, because split-second
aiming is equal parts reflex and conscious thought, and your reflex
movement directly corresponds to your mouse sensitivity. Select a
sensitivity level and stick with it, so as not to confuse your sniper
reflexes. I use a level around 5, buy you can work with whatever
level suits you best.

Early Game Tactics
------------------
The Arctic is one of the most expensive guns in the game. Don't
expect to be able to buy one until the third round, second round
if you were lucky enough to kill enough enemies and/or rescue some
hostages. If you've been losing straight and haven't gotten any
cash bonuses from killing enemies or whatever, you may only be
able to buy one by the fourth round. But believe me, it's worth it.

If you seriously want to go the way of the [gulay], do NOT buy
anything in the first two rounds. You want to have enough money
to buy your Arctic by the third round. The [gulay] sniper forgoes
all in the first two rounds in order to slaughter on the third.

Low Ammo
------------
Most people who use Arctics buy the gun and stock up to the
full thirty shells. We of the [gulay] sniping school scoff
at this practice.

The [gulay] sniper only carries into battle the ten shells that
come with the Arctic, plus spare ammo of at least 10, no more
than 20. The reason for this is manifold. The most obvious
is economics: AWP ammo costs 12 bucks a shot! It is the most
expensive ammo in the game. But the real reason is to train
you to kill as efficiently as possible with as few shots as
possible. Your ultimate goal is to be able to kill one enemy
with one shot, most of the time.

The final reason why you should stock your ammo so sparingly
is a macabre one: in case of your death, you want to make sure
that whoever killed you will have as little ammo as possible.
With luck, your killer may be reluctant to use your gun, and
decide not to use your gun. At worst, if your killer is not
used to the low ammo clip of your gun, it will leave a
psychological fear of low ammo which will ruin his game.

You have to get used to the scarcity mentality of ammo. Bringing
along sparing ammo will train your mind to make each shot
count. Further, this will teach you the next valuable skill:
reloading.

Minimal Reloading
--------------------
The Arctic can kill in one shot. This is such an innocuous fact,
but it has one very powerful implication: ten shots is a lot!
Your AWP, with its starting clip, can kill at least ten people,
more if you get a two in one. And this is pretty realistic;
unlike other guns, the AWP stands a fair chance of killing one
person with each shot. An MP5, for instance, can theoretically
kill 30 people with one clip, but this is highly improbable.
With the AWP, though, this is much more probable.

With the scarce ammo mentality learned earlier, you are now
ready to learn a very crucial skill: minimal reloading. Most
people like to reload their Arctics after one or two shots,
when the enemy has been killed and no other is in sight.
This is fine, but a true AWP sniper will scoff at this. Why?

Because the low reload time of the AWP is better spent either
going back to the assault or carefully waiting for the next
victim. You cannot run the risk of an opponent showing up
while you are reloading your gun. Thus, reload as sparingly
as possible.

The [gulay] sniper should only reload when his ammo goes below
5. Five shots is still enough to finish off two opponents, even
with a few misses. With the Arctic, you should be "good to the
last drop."

Shotgun Sniping (Zoomless Arctic)
----------------------------------

ack in the early betas when the AWP was still accurate without
the zoom, the prime skill you would need to learn was the art of
"Shotgun Sniping." This basically means using your AWP like a
shotgun: for a quick, decisive shot without the zoom. The reason
for this is because the zoom impairs your peripheral vision, ups
your perceived mouse sensitivity, and slows your perceived
movement rate.

While in truth you still have the same movement and sensitivity
rates, your perception is warped by the magnification. This
decreases your fighting ability greatly. Thus the need for
shotgun sniping. Unfortunately, this art is no longer as powerful
as before due to a loss of accuracy. Still, you must learn this
art for close-combat defense in case an opponent gets close to
you.

Besides, you still have about 60% accuracy while standing, more
than that if you kneel. In an emergency situation where you must
defend yourself from a nearby opponent, this is your last
desperate gamble. Without the zoom, track your opponent and
concentrate. You only have one shot. If it misses, you will
likely die. Bend the AWP to your will, and hopefully you will
be able to get the shot to go where you are pointing. Be sure
to duck, and pull the trigger. Pray the shot goes where it is
supposed to.

Close Combat Zoom
-----------------------
The alternative to shotgun sniping, which is very difficult and
which I do not really recommend, is to go the normal shotgun
sniping, but at the last moment before the shot, engage the zoom.
This will up the accuracy to what its supposed to be. However,
this is very difficult, as you will require a split-second to
engage the zoom before shooting. That split second means all
the difference between life and death: in that moment your opponent
could put a bullet in your head, or your aim could come off in that
key instant. Still, this technique is an alternative if you do not
trust the odds of the shotgun snipe.

The Desert Eagle
---------------------
The Desert Eagle is the [gulay] school preferred sidearm. Why?
Because it is powerful. When you have the extra money (and only
if you have the extra money), buy an Eagle to complement your
AWP. Extra money is defined as money in excess of buying
another AWP plus armor.

The Eagle should fall in line with your shooting philosophy:
kill with as few shots as possible. That is why it is the perfect
handgun for the [gulay] sniper.

You should switch to the Eagle whenever conditions are not
favorable for assault sniping. In the close combat emergency,
this is your final option. Important: when going for the
shotgun snipe detailed earlier, do NOT consider the Eagle as
an option. Think that you must make the shot, or you will die.
If you are thinking of the Eagle already, this will destroy
your concentration and increase the probability of missing
the shot.

Still, when you do miss the shot, you must be ready to switch
to your pistol immediately.

If you do not like the DEagle, then a good compromise is the
Sig 228 or the USP. Although the Five Seven is now available,
you should be wary of the size 20 clip. It's the same reason
why you should avoid Glocks and the Dual Berettas: aside from
their weaker ammo, these guns encourage auto-fire style of
play. When training to be an Arctic master, this is debilitative
and gets in the way of your training. You must stick to single-
fire skill as much as possible; going auto-fire will regress
your training.

Later on, when you have become comfortable with the different
firing techniques, you can experiment with the more "auto-fire"
pistols. But for now, stick to the Eagle.

Assault Sniper
---------------------
Assault sniping is no longer as effective as it used to be, but
it is still an option. The trick to assault sniping it to create
the conditions necessary for it to work: a narrow corridor where
the opponent has little opportunity to dodge. Under these
conditions, you can afford to go shotgun sniping at point blank
range and expect good results.

When going on the offensive, you as a sniper must choose the
locations in the map which give you a good opportunity of
hitting your opponent. A good example is, again, the tunnel
in DE_DUST. Only go assault sniping in such places; otherwise,
switch to your Desert Eagle or follow in the wake of a team
mate who has a good close-combat weapon.

Most importantly, when assault sniping, keep in mind the principle
of Hot and Cold Firing.

Hot and Cold Firing Technique
----------------------------------
As discussed in the Techniques section, hot and cold firing is
moving, but at the moment before firing you instantly brake,
and fire from a motionless position. This is invaluable for
Arctic players who have to go assault for any reason.

Be careful; some inertia is present in the CS engine, and it is
not easy to stop immediately. Just letting go of the movement
key is not enough; you must counter your momentum by lightly
tapping the movement key of the opposite direction. This is
not as easy as it sounds, but with practice you should be able
to achieve it.

By instantaneously stopping your movement, you will increase
your assault sniping accuracy tremendously. Keep in mind, though
that the Hot and Cold technique does not quite bring your
accuracy to the same level as keeping still. Sometimes, you might
want to duck instead of braking; it's more accurate, the only
problem is that your aim will move a bit.

Assault Sniping Two
---------------------------
The previous lesson was about assault sniping at close range.
However, the more common use of assault sniping will be doing
it as sniping was meant to be: at medium to long range.
Examples of this would be storming under the bridge in DE_DUST.
In the case of long to mid range assault sniping, you proceed
cautiously and use the Hot and Cold technique when you spot
the enemy. However, I cannot stress how you must anticipate
where the enemy is. It is highly probable that the opponent
you will encounter in this case is a camper who is waiting
for you to show. You must therefore be ready for him the
moment you see him, and react swiftly.

Aside from the Hot and Cold technique, you must learn the
secret deadly sniping skills of the [gulay] school. These
will be detailed later.

For now, concentrate on positional awareness; this is the
key to anticipating where your opponents will be found.

Positional Advantage and Awareness
--------------------------------------
The most important aspect of Arctic Mastery, though, still lies
in your positional awareness. As mentioned earlier, developing
the keen sniping eye is just half of the total skill: the other
half is knowing where to be, and when.

This is difficult to teach, and as with most advanced skills,
experience is the best teacher. Specific map discussions would
help imparting this knowledge, by pointing out which points are
the most effective to cover.

Still, the basic rules to consider can be outlined:
1.) When camping, choose a remote position which is
    difficult to reach without exposure to the AWP.
2.) When assaulting, choose enclosed spaces where
    potential targets will have difficulty dodging.
3.) Seek out sniping points early in the game where
    you can steal a quick kill before running away
    to a more defensible spot. These points are usually
    vulnerable positions where the enemy will not expect
    you, but which are very narrow and offer an excellent
    shot. Upon making a kill or two, withdraw to a safer
    position.

Style of the Ages
-----------------------

"The Saotome Ougi is based on three principles: Speed, Seperation,
and Strategy. In other words, run away until you think of
something better."
  -- Saotome Genma, Ranma Nibunnoichi

The third rule of positional awareness is what is called the
"Style of the Ages." Shoot once, kill, and run away. Discovering
such a point from which to use the technique is practically a
free kill. And since you do it at the start of the round, most
inexperienced players unfamiliar with your skill do not expect it.

To best explain this skill, I will give an example from DE_DUST.
You are a terrorist. This is the DE_DUST tunnel, where the
majority of conflict in Dust occurs.

        to terrorist base
          |O  |
          |   |
   |-------   ----                           |--------
 --|            O \   the tunnel             |
                   --------------------------|
 --|                          xO
   |O------------------------|   |-----------|
    _________________________|   |___________|
                                  \     O
                                   \             bomb
 <- to bridge    double doors -> \                site
   ______________        ________ \____________________
                 |      |
                to CT base

                     O - Crates
                     x - Style of the Ages Sniping Point

The Style of the Ages requires you to move with incredible
speed to get to the key points before your opponents do.
Here is one of the riskier, but highly-effective points.
As a terrorist, make your way to the 'x' marked on the
map. From there, aim towards the crack of the double
doors that you can see. The faster CTs will probably have
gone ahead to the bomb site, but from your vantage point,
you will be able to easily snipe the slower ones still
heading either into the double doors or into the tunnel
where you are.

The ones entering into the double doors are easy targets.
The moment they are about to step through the thin slit
to the bombsite, you shoot and they are history. This
technique garners so many kills.

Do not be afraid of the CTs who plan to enter into the
tunnel! This is what I meant by narrow spaces. The
entrance to the tunnel is a very narrow space; you can
easily shoot any CT the moment he shows his face into
that small entrance. However, upon grabbing a few kills
and giving away your position, you should retreat to a
safer position. There is such a thing as being too greedy;
be sure to leave and get to a better position. Knowing
when to withdraw is as important as the agression of
getting there in the first place.

That is the gist of the technique; this example will
hopefully help you master the fine points of the Style
of the Ages and assault sniping. That's what it's all
about. Find points like this, and you have learned the
other half of the important skill of Arctic Sniping:
Positional Mastery. The other half is the usual camping
points, of course.


Instilling Fear
-------------------------------------
Another important aspect of [gulay] sniping is to control or
at least influence the movements of your enemy. I have always
emphasized that mental state is the underlying key to winning
your battles. As such, battle exists on two levels: the
physical and the mental. You must learn to badger and scare
your opponent for the twofold purpose of breaking his mental
concentration and teaching him where to move.

"Get out of my way, you maggot-infested piece of shit."
  -- Shinomori Aoshi, Rurouni Kenshin (Hecto version)

By controlling key sniping points on the map, you can effectively
limit your opponent's movements. It's the same principle as with
the backstab technique: you scare your opponent with such deaths,
teaching him to look out for those dark corners. As a sniper, you
instead teach him to be wary of open spaces.

A good example of this is for the terrorists in CS_MANSION. Most
people think that the terrorists should cower in fear in the mansion
while CTs assault to rescue the hostages. Wrong! Terrorists rule
CS_MANSION, and snipers are the key to doing it. From the two top
windows and the balcony, a sniper can control the middle field of
the map and severely limit CT movement. Another terrorist must
jump out of the house immediately on the terrorist's right side
to cover the mousehole. When that has been accomplished, the CTs
are deadly paralyzed with only one option: the sewers. And the
sewer is so easy to defend from above ground.

After you have instilled the fear of death in certain places,
you must push the advantage in suceeding rounds. Presumably,
your enemies are scared stiff of charging the well-beaten
path, so they will tend to hang-out and camp a little farther
back. Once that has happened, you repeat the vicious cycle,
taking control of the ground they have relinquished, and
expanding your circle of fear. By doing this, you can rout your
opponents.

A good example would be the Style of the Ages snipe point I
showed earlier in DE_DUST. If you scare the CTs enough with
that technique, they will eventually be so scared to pass
the double doors that they will no longer rush to defend the
bombsite. Which makes your job as terrorist really easy: no
CTs to guard the bombsite, you can plant away.

By using techniques like this to frighten your opponents, you can
easily break their fighting spirit and mental concentration, and
severely limit their physical movement: you have won the battle on
both levels. The weapons best suited for teaching such fear is of
course, the Arctic. Learn to use it to strike fear in the hearts
of your foe, and you have mastered one of the key secrets of the
[gulay] school.

Some day, I hope to release detailed map strategies that will
teach you how to utilize these psy-war tactics. For now, you
must content yourself with the principles of it, and learn how
to apply them on your own.


Taunting (minumura)
-------------------------------------
As a student of the [gulay] school of sniping arts, you should
make it a habit to taunt your opponents. Even if you do not mean
it, taunting is a great way to get under your opponent's skin
and make him lose his focus. The degree of your taunting is
totally up to you; if you're a congenial guy you can tone it
down, but if you're a real asshole feel free to say whatever.
But in the spirit of my teachings, you should taunt whenever
possible.

For the pride of the [gulay] school, an acceptable form of
taunting is to bind a message to a key. After killing someone,
press the key to taunt. This becomes your "signature," and if
you're good enough and do it regularly enough, that phrase
will strike fear into the hearts of your opponent.

This technique, thus, serves four purposes: to help instill
fear, to ruin your enemy's focus, to establish your presence
on the battlefield, and to simply make you feel good about
yourself. Morale is important in battle, remember that!

If you wish to take up the [gulay] battlecry, bind this
message to a hotkey, to be pressed upon slaying an opponent:

"Main Cannon, Eva Black, FIRE!!!"

Of course, if you think that sounds corny, you are free to
make up whatever taunt you want. I just have a personal
bent towards anime quips.

Finally, if you feel like being even more irritating, bind it
to your attack key so that you say it each time you fire:

   BIND MOUSE1 "+ATTACK;SAY MAIN CANNON, EVA BLACK, FIRE!"

I don't recommend that last bit, though. Even I haven't done that. ^_^


Team First, You Last
-------------------------------------
One of the great vulnerabilities of the Arctic is to close combat
in unfavorable conditions. That is why you should make it a habit
to rely on your teammates for protection. Following the "Team First,
You Last" technique given in Chapter 5, you should under most
conditions make your assault in the wake of a team member's charge.

Even when doing mid to long range assault sniping, you should follow
this lead. The reason is because at that range, enemy snipers are
likely to be camping, unless you are so good that you can hit them
that easily, the more unscrupulous sniper should let the team mate
take the bullet, then come in and kill the opposing sniper.

Still, valor is often required to win. If you're good enough and
have confidence in yourself, feel free to charge in and take the
key positions for yourself. This is especially true if your
teammates are slower than you are -- no sense in wasting precious
time waiting for someone to take the plunge for you.

High Ground
-------------------------------------
Camping and sniping is best done from a high position, where you
can get a good view of your enemy, right? Wrong! Although common
sense dictates this, the [gulay] school believes differently.

Although you do get to see a larger area, you also expose yourself
terribly to enemy vision. That's why I don't understand the logic
of camping in a sniper tower. If you go to high ground for sniping,
do it in an unexpected place in order to gain the advantage of
surprise, not the advantage of height and vision. Sniper towers
are often the first thing enemy snipers check.

I have another personal preference for not wanting to stay in high
places. Most people disagree with me, but I maintain that shooting
from a higher position is actually harder than shooting from ground
level. I also believe that shooting at a higher floor is easier than
shooting at a lower level. Why?

My reasoning is mathematical. Imagine yourself on a level, 2D plane
(like the ground). From one point on that plane to any other, there
are less lines. In contrast, imagine yourself on a higher point not
on that plane. You'll find there are more lines to any particular
point, because you are now on a 3D plane. The same goes true for
someone aiming at someone on the same level, and someone aiming
from a higher point. More lines, thus more aiming possibilities to
cover. Make sense? I don't know if you'll agree with me, but that's
how I see it.

Further, aiming at a higher floor is actually easier, with similar
reasoning. As discussed earlier, aiming from a higher point means
your entire set of aiming possibilities lies on a plane -- more
points. But aiming from a lower point to a higher level is simpler,
because you do not see the entire floor. Instead, you only see a
single line where the target will be moving from to shoot you. Thus,
there is a smaller set of aiming possibilities -- a single line.
It is therefore easier to aim at something higher, than to aim at
something lower.

To make this clearer, let me give a concrete example. Imagine the
balcony in CS_MANSION or CS_ESTATE. A terrorist sniping from that
balcony must cover an entire plane, the field below. A CT, however,
need only look at the single line where his vision intersects the
balcony. Make sense? I hope so.

-----------------------------------------------------------------
| In conclusion, a higher position will usually give you more   |
| visibility, but make you an easier target. The main objective |
| of going to higher ground is to gain surprise, not visibility |
| or ease of targetting.                                        |
-----------------------------------------------------------------

***

These are ground rules of the [gulay] style sniping school. However,
there is still more to learn: the special [gulay] style Arctic
Techniques, the skills that will help you beat all opponents.

-----------------------------------------
| Movement Skill: Hyperspeed (Shukuchi) |
-----------------------------------------
This technique is the advanced, Arctic-specific application of three
general techniques: Weapon Switcing, Speed Buying and End Reloading.
When you have mastered these techniques, you can learn the Shukuchi.

The first order is to change to your knife at the beginning of the
round. This will allow you to run as fast as possible to wherever
you want to go (presumably to execute the Style of the Ages). That
is the most basic use of Shukuchi.

However, the advanced skill of Shukuchi is more than just speed at
the start of the round. By learning to switch weapons all the time,
you can get rid of one of the AWP's main drawbacks: weight. When
running, utilize weapon switching and you will be able to run fast,
as if you weren't using an Arctic.

The final level of Shukuchi is in actual combat. Once you have
mastered weapon switching, you can achieve tremendous speed in
between shots of the Arctic. The trick is to change weapons
exactly after you fire. Utilize the Hot and Cold firing
technique first to stop while firing. After firing, switch
to your knife or pistol immediately, to give yourself a quick
speed burst to run away from enemy fire. Or, you can switch back
to your Arctic again -- it is ready to fire! This can cut down
on the severe rechambering time that slows down the AWP's rate
of fire. Once you have mastered this technique, you will be a
cannonball AWP sniper who can seemingly move like an MP5 fighter.

------------------------------------------------------
| Sniping Skill: Shooting the Shadow (Kage Utsugiri) |
------------------------------------------------------
"You can run, but you can't hide from my .338 Lapua Magnum round!"
   -- Me

This is the first deadly skill of [gulay] sniping. The AWP has
the strongest penetration among all the CS guns. Take advantage
of this by learning to locate enemies hiding behind rocks,
crates, and other obstacles. They think they are safe, but
flimsy obstacles offer no protection from a [gulay] sniper.

The secret is to famliarize yourself with the common placement
where a person will stand when hiding behind crates. Familiarity
with the map is a must to master this skill. People tend to
crouch precisely at the corners of such obstacles where they
intersect with the wall. By using 3D-depth estimation, you can
pinpoint their exact location, fire, and kill. The downside is
that the AWP is no longer as powerful as before, so thicker
crates may require you to shoot twice now to kill an armored
opponent at full health. Still, learning this skill will strike
even more fear into the hearts of the enemy, for you are
teaching them that hiding is not a guarantee of safety.

The more advanced application of this technique can limit
movement on some maps. Certain defensive positions of opponents
are easy to undermine with this trick. A good example is in
CS_ASSAULT2K (or even in CS_ASSAULT). Terrorists like to camp
out inside the warehouse to wait for the CTs. Many of them stay
on the railway on the right side of the warehouse from the hostage
room. Little do they know that that part of the map is on a similar
level to the bridge outside. The crafty [gulay] CT sniper will move
on to the bridge and aim at the wall, behind which is the long
railway where the terrorists perch. Shooting a few shots here,
you can easily kill any terrorists camping inside.

This is the most advanced form of Kage Utsugiri. By studying the
enemy's camping habits, you can eliminate them without a fight
with a few well-placed shots. This skill is easily strengthened
when you have a dead teammate coaching you where the enemy is
hiding, but to master this technique you must learn the basic
intuition that will guide your hand.

--------------------------------------------------------
| Sniping Skill: Flash of the Dark Sky (Yuugusora Sen) |
--------------------------------------------------------
This is the second deadly skill of the [gulay] school. Most
players find jumping as an easy and effective way of avoiding
enemy fire. You, as a sniper of the [gulay] school, should
teach him otherwise.

To be able to kill a person the moment he lands is the aim
of this skill. This is quite possible and logical because
CS jump trajectory is very easy to plot and estimate. Unless
your opponent is using stop-jumping techniques, you should be
able to kill him easily at the end of his jump.

The secret to this technique is to familiarize yourself with
the jumping physics of the CS engine. Once you have done so,
you can easily shoot down any jumping opponent with practice.

------------------------------------------------------
| Sniping Skill: Instant Death Blow (Shun Satsu Sen) |
------------------------------------------------------

"Main cannon, Eva Black, Fire!"
  -- Yamamoto Youko, Soreyuke! Uchuusenkan Yamamoto Youko

This is the third deadly sniper skill, the ultimate
refinement of the camping art. With this technique, you can
kill an opponent the very second he appears from your camped
position.

This skill is as much a mental skill as a physical one. To
achieve it, you mind must be working at a fast enough level
that your reaction time is at its zenith. This is a true
camper's Arctic skill. By pointing at the spot where your
opponent is most likely to appear, you fire immediately at
hit him as soon as he appears.

That is the physical aspect. The mental aspect is mastered
by keeping the mind at the edge of activity. By utilizing
mind exercise techniques, you can achieve this. Perhaps
the best method to achieve this mental level is by being
keenly aware of your breathing. A basic method is counting
while exhaling, but not while inhaling as you breath at
regular intervals. This will help train your mind to achieve
the concentration needed to execute Shun Satsu Sen.

The actual use of this technique, though, is not strictly for 
camping, but rather for stopping at narrow passes where your 
opponent is likely to show up or follow you. By waiting at a
bottleneck and shifting to your 2x scope, you wait for an
enemy to burst from cover and get into your sights. As soon
as he does, shoot. He dies.

In case you didn't figure it out, this is the technique used
with the Style of the Ages.

-----------------------------------------------------
| Sniping Skill: Catching the Movement (Nigeto Sen) |
-----------------------------------------------------
This is the fourth and final deadly sniper skill. As of the
moment, this is the most advanced technique I have learned.
I do not know if I care to call this my ougi, but it is at
the moment my finest achievement.

By finely honing your mental concentration, you can exist in
a world which has one purpose: shooting a moving enemy in an
eyeblink. With this technique, you can track down a moving
opponent, estimate his position, and shoot with lethal
results. This all occurs in a very short span of time.

This technique requires intense, constant concentration. To
train it, an ideal spot is at the end of a tunnel where an
opponent can suddenly enter. Keep your cursor aimed at the
spot directly next to the wall where the enemy is likely to
come from. His movement the moment he comes from the edge
of the wall should register in your mind. As he moves away,
swing the mouse immediately in his direction. When you fire,
you should be able to hit him.

By training in this fashion, you can master this technique.
Do not confuse this skill with the instant death technique:
Shun Satsu Sen. This is a different skill beyond that technique.
It allows you a fluidity to kill opponents not from a set point.
Master it, and you can kill any opponent anywhere from mid to
long range. Combined with Shun Satsu Sen, this is the lethal
technique to kill in an eyeblink. Perhaps you could call it
Shun Ten Satsu (Instant Heavenly Murder), in honor of Tenken
no Soujiro, God's gift to nature.

"I see, you make an attack using the speed of the Shukuchi.
It is indeed worthy of being called Shun Ten Satsu."
  -- Himura Kenshin, Rurouni Kenshin

------------------------------------------------------------
| Sniping Skill: Two Headed Dragon Flash (Nisaki Ryuu Sen) |
------------------------------------------------------------

"I dodged it...  Ack! Sword and sheath..."
  -- Udo Jinee, Rurouni Kenshin

This is an extra technique which is not fully in use by
the gulay school. However, anything goes, and if you
learn this technique it might save your life. Use it
when when someone gets too close to you for comfort, but
you're too low on life for comfort.

Simply switch to your handgun before the skirmish begins,
and use figure eight sidestepping to hit your opponent.
The aim is to stun him, not kill him. When you get in
that one good shot to stun him, switch to your AWP. Since
you already hit him with your handgun, your AWP should be
pointed straight at him. Shoot and finish him off while 
he's stopped. 

Most pistols have decent stopping power, meaning if you hit 
your opponent (particularly the chest) they will be stunned
for a moment, their aim knocked up and unable to move.

This makes it easier to kill them quickly with your
AWP at close range.

Of course, this is not easy to do, and it is crucial
that you get the initiative and hit them before they
hit you. There is also the argument that, if you already
hit them with the pistol, why bother switching to the AWP?
Why not finish him off with the pistol? Well, the answer
here is that this technique should be used as a last
ditch effort when you are down on life and you run into
someone at close range. If you have a little life and
your opponent has a lot, trying to finish him off with
your pistol is not a good idea, especially if he's
packing a true assault weapon. But, if you can nail him
with the AWP, then his high life is not an issue. The
problem is hitting with the single fire AWP -- it can be
quite a problem, and all your enemy needs is one shot as
well, and he probably has a fast-firing weapon.

The way to increase your chances is to stun him with your
hand gun, since it has a high rate of fire, then switch
to the AWP and finish him off. This technique works well
with the stock terrorist gun -- the Glock. It also works
with the USP, but the USP is strong enough to finish a
weakened opponent by itself. I don't recommend this
technique with the Eagle, though. If you're using an
Eagle, just rely on it to finish the enemy off: it's
strong enough.


========================
How to Defeat the Arctic
------------------------
This section is for people who want to go up against the arctic.
However, by knowing your own weakness, an Arctic player can
compensate and adjust his fighting style. The AWP player should
know this just as well, if not better, than his opponent.

One of the things to consider is to learn how your opponent aims:
whether they use Glide Aiming or Mouse Aiming. It is often easy
to tell. If your opponent is side-stepping at range with the funny
gait that only the AWP, then you are sure he is Glide Aiming. If
he is standing still or kneeling down, then you know he is Mouse
Aiming.

The key to surviving an arctic attack is to watch the point of his
gun. Before the sniper has drawn a bead on you, his gun will be
pointing away from you. You will still actually be able to see
the barrel and stock of the AWP. However, once the gun is pointed
at you, all you will see is a dot as the barrel lines up with your
eye. It is at this crucial moment that you either jump or dash or
do whatever movement you feel is appropriate. In that split second
before he fires, you must move as fast as you can, for your life
depends on it. If you can achieve this, then you have learned the
basic skill needed to survive an AWP sniper.

The next skill you will have to learn depends on you. What weapon
are you using? If you are using an MP5, Carbine, or other automatic
weapon, then you should engage in the Anti-Arctic Technique that was
detailed in Chapter 5 (under offensive techniques). You can use the
same technique as well using a pistol, although it will be harder.

If you are using a shotgun, don't even think about it. You have
practically no chance of winning. Duck for cover, and find a way
to get closer while under cover. You can also run the gauntlet
and try zig-zagging closer to your opponent, but that is highly
risky and not a very smart thing to do.

Barring these techniques, you could use a smoke grenade and/or some
flashbangs to get closer. Smoke Grendades are the sniper's worst
friend.

Things get interesting, however, when the weapon you are using is
a sniper as well. Then, we get an intersting sniper duel.

The Arctic Duel
--------------------
Regardless of whether you use a G3, Scout, Krieg or AWP, the
fundamental rules of sniper duelling is the same. But the
culmination of this ancient dance is the classic Arctic vs.
Arctic. It is very funny to see two AWP snipers locked in a
ferocious duel as they strut left and right, occasionally jumping,
firing earth-shaking shots all the while.

There are two basic courses of action for a sniper in a sniper
duel. The first is stand the opponent off and attack relentlessly,
hoping to hit him first. This is where the scenario I painted
earlier occurs: two snipers hopping around like idiots at the
ends of a vast expanse. Here, you must rely on the various
basic offensive-defensive techniques outlined earlier: Hot and
Cold Firing, Jump Aiming, Ducking, and Sidestepping. Just keep
going until one of you wins or gives up.

"I'll teach you who you picked a fight with."
  -- Yamamoto Youko, Soreyuke! Uchuusenkan Yamamoto Youko

But the smart dueller will not fall for such an insane joust.
The motto of the [gulay] skill is to shoot first, then run away.
Regardless of whether you hit or not. If you missed, that's where
the Arctic Duel starts. As you miss, your opponent will shoot back
at you. What you do is you hide back from where you came from, just
enough so that you are no longer visible. You should still have a
view of a part of your opponent's side of the field. If your
opponent is predictable (and stupid), he will try to follow after
you, trying to get into position to shoot you. What he doesn't know
is that you are prepared for him.

After you have taken cover, sit in place, aim at where he is likely
to appear, and engage the Shun Satsu Sen. The moment he appears, fire.
You have the Shun Satsu Sen on your side, your aim is set, you should
win easily.

However, if your opponent is less predictable, or has some shred of
common sense, he will not fall for the trap and follow you. He will
stay in place as well, and attempt a Shun Satsu Sen of his own. The
solution to this is simple. You take the battle back to him. But you
do NOT edge out to get a glimpse of him. That would be stupid. What
you do is you JUMP from cover and land a goodly distance from where
his gun is pointed. Utilizing the Jump Aiming technique, finish him
off as you land.

Now, what if your opponent tries the same technique on you? Then put
together the deadly sniper skills of the [gulay] school: Yuugusora
Sen and Nigeto Sen -- catch his movement and let loose with flash of
the dark sky. He will be toast.

One last consideration: if you get into the Arctic duel and your
opponent ducks for cover, you can either chase after him with the
Jump Aiming technique, or make use of the first sniping skill:
Kage Utsugiri, Shooting the Shadow. Hit him behind wherever he's
hiding and end the battle.

Of course, you might wonder what's stopping your opponent from doing
the same stuff to you? Well, from my experience, the majority of
snipers do not follow the philosophies of [gulay] sniping. Surely
there exist people who use some of its techniques, and there are
probably others who know all these techniques as well. And of
course, as of this writing, many people now have access to these
techniques. Still, the majority of people will probably act the
predicatable way -- the way which the [gulay] sniping school was
formulated to defeat. People who run after you when you duck for
cover, people who zigzag towards you, these are the most common
reactions of the majority of players. Be assured that this skill
is the "sneakier" skill that will give you the edge.

And in the end, what it all really boils down to is a battle of
skill. When you both use the same techniques, the victor is the
one who is better, and in most cases, the one who is the luckier.
That is the harsh way of the Arctic Duel.

Stop The Jump (Tobu o Tomete)
-----------------------------
An added tidbit that is limited in use. It's a funny technique,
but can help you defeat those snipers who've mastered Yuugusora Sen
(catching the jump). Someone who has learned the Yuugusora Sen can
catch you at the end of your jump easily. To make it more difficult
for the sniper, you can "stop" your jump mid-air and screw his aim.

While jumping in one direction, simply tap the key in to move in
the opposite direction. This will make you freeze in mid-air, and
fall straight down. While this doesn't always work, it makes you
far more unpredicatable, and could save your life from the dreaded
AWP sniper.



===============================================================================
7B.   H&K MP5-Navy  [3-1]
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
NOTE:

The MP5 is the archetypal weapon for the assault, quick firing
close-range combat guns. Most of these techniques apply as well
for the other guns in its class: the TMP, the P90, the M4 Carbine,
and even the the Mac-10.

(In the absence of the other gun sections, use this as reference)

Why Use the MP5?
-----------------------------------------
It is arguably one of the finest, if not the best close combat weapon
in the game. It has insane firing rate, unparalleled handling and is
still quite effective for sniping at medium range. All this for the
incredible cheap price of $1500. Win or lose, you can buy this gun.
Any time. All the time.


Weaknesses
----------------------------------
1.) Piss-poor attack power. There are only three guns that are weaker
than this one: the Steyr TMP, the Berettas, and the Glock.

2.) Limited range ability: the MP5 is a killer up-close, but is a
little inaccurate at range. You can still steal some kills at
medium range, but long range is dubious. The weak attack power also
means a luck shot at range is less likely to do much damage compared
to the rifles.

3.) Weak against armored opponents. Again, a consequence of the 9mm round.

------------------------------------------
How to Use the MP5: General Principles
==========================================

-------------------
| Always Sidestep |
-------------------

The MP5 has the second best handling in the game (best is the TMP). This
is true even while going full-auto. Thus, to be truly effective with the
MP5, learn to sidestep while attacking. Always. Master the Figure Eight
technique if you want to be able to kill opponents while taking minimal
or no damage.

------------------------------------------
| Use Full-Auto Fire as much as possible |
------------------------------------------

Because the MP5 has very weak attack power, you must compensate by firing
full auto, to do as much damage as quickly as possible. And since the MP5
has minimal recoil and great close-range accuracy even while moving, this
is not a problem.

------------------------
| Fight at Close Range |
------------------------

While the MP5 can peform reasonably well at medium range (but not
long range), it isn't a match for the true rifles or even some of
the pistols and SMGs. No, the MP5 was built for close-range combat,
assaults in particular, and you should take advantage of this.
Thanks to its great handling, the MP5 can easily outperform all
the assault rifles in close combat, in spite of its weaker attack
power. Train to kill with the MP5 in close quarters, and you will
be surprising the M4, Aug, and Commando users in close combat.

-------------------------
| Go for the Headshots! |
-------------------------

The MP5 is the best gun to go for headshots up close. It is relatively
easy to get them with the gun, thanks to the many shots you fire and
the accuracy/controllability. And unlike the TMP, its closest rival, the MP5
can actually kill an unhelmeted opponent with one headshot, two with the
helmet. The TMP needs two shots unarmored, more (four, I think) with the
helmet.

For the best results, aim, as always, for the general neck area. Hold
your gun cursor at the general neck area while you are moving around,
and when you spot an enemy SIDESTEP first then quickly move the cursor
horizontally until you reach his head. Fire the moment your cursor touches
his shoulder, and keep firing while sidestepping madly. Using the Figure
Eight technique, keep sidestepping while keeping the cursor fixed on his
neck/head.

------------------------------------------
MP5: Other Techniques
==========================================

Sniping Tactics
------------------
The MP5 is still relatively good for sniping at medium range, but even
then there is a good chance your shots will not be accurate and shoot
around your crosshair. Far too often have I seen my shots hit around a
target's head at medium range.

Still, for sniping at medium range, you can still kill an opponent
with headshots. Body shots are easier to do, but are not very effective
because you need something like five or more shots to kill an armored
person, and at this range only one in every three shots might hit the
target. When sniping with the MP5, your best recourse is to try for
the head.

At medium range, it is still quite possible to shoot full-auto and get
decent results. This will increase your chances of hitting the target
and killing him faster. However, I personally prefer going burst fire
for the most part.

At long range, I always use burst fire, and I recommend that you should,
too. However, the more prudent thing to do would be to get closer and
not engage in long-range combat. Especially if you are up against one
of the rifles better suited for this kind of combat.

---------------------------------------
| When sniping with the MP5, sidestep |
---------------------------------------

Regardless of whether you use auto or burst fire, always sidestep
while sniping with the MP5. Rely on your rate of fire to hit your
opponent. The only exception is when your opponent is unaware of
your presence, in which case sniping while crouching is a good idea.
Take note that it is also easier to use bursts while sidestepping
than full-auto. Full-auto is easier to do while crouching.

Crouching in a medium range duel is often the thing to do when using
the rifles, but doing so with the MP5 is dubious, especially when
up against the rifles. The MP5 simply does not have the accuracy
to compete. So stick to sidestepping.

-------------------------------
| Use your Pistol for sniping |
-------------------------------

However, when I am forced into a medium range confrontation, I actually
prefer to switch to my pistol. In general pistols, with their single fire
triggers, are actually better than the MP5 for sniping. They generally
share the same range and accuracy, but most pistols have better ammo and
some, like the beretta and the five-seven, have better accuracy. Recoil
is also much lower, making it easier to keep on target.

When you want to fight medium or even long range and you have no
intention of side-stepping, switching to your pistol is often a
better idea.

Only stick to the MP5 when you plan to fight at that range while
sidestepping -- such as when using the Anti-Arctic technique (5.c3a).
And when you sidestep, go burst.


Sidearm of Choice
-------------------
Although while using an AWP the Eagle is the only way to go for me, with
an MP5 this may be different, and there is no "Gulay School of MP5."
When I play with the MP5, I tend to stick with the default weapon until
I have enough money to spare to buy a sidearm. The great thing about the
MP5 is that, since it is so cheap, you can easily afford to buy a sidearm
on a regular basis.

In my case, I like to pick a secondary that can act as my sniping weapon.
I personally find that the MP5 is really best for close range, and not
sniping, and that many pistols are actually better for the purpose. In
general, I like to get the Desert Eagle, but that's only because it is
my favorite sidearm. The power of the .50 is intoxicating, and it is
suprisingly good for sniping. Because of the power, three or so shots is
enough to kill at range, one if you're lucky enough to get the head.

Aside from the Eagle, as a CT I like to get the Five-Seven. Since it is
very accurate, it is a great choice for sniping. As a terrorist, I might
have recommended the Dual Berettas, but I have reservations about this;
the largest being that it uses the same ammo. I hate sharing ammo for
my primary with my secondary.

Thus when using the MP5, I tend to avoid having the Glock or Berettas
for my secondary. The perfect secondary would be the Five Seven, or
failing that the Sig Sauer is a good alternative.

Take note that the Desert Eagle is only good as a sniping alternative
to the MP5. Avoid using it in close quarters, as the MP5 and Eagle
use very different philosophies. The MP5 has a large clip size and
tends toward auto-fire. The Eagle has a small clip and tends to
single fire. These two will be in conflict. That's why the best
sidearm for the MP5 is actually still the Five Seven, and for
Terrorists the Glock is just fine. You should always keep yourself
in an auto-fire mindset when using the MP5.

In general, having a sidearm is not as important for an MP5 user as it is
for, say, an AWP user. The MP5, being able to perform reasonably well under
most conditions, needs no sidearm. For the most part, since I try to avoid
ranged skirmishes while using the MP5, the only time I switch to the pistol
is when I run out of ammo.

Thinking about changing to your secondary tends to distract you from
sing the MP5 to its fullest capacity -- in close combat.

Kamikaze Run
---------------
This technique is very useful when your team is on the losing side
and cash is low for everyone. Take note that this technique is best
used in a group, rather than individually.

At the start of the round, being low on cash, just buy an MP5. That's
it. Don't buy any extra ammo, don't buy a pistol, don't buy pistol
ammo, don't buy armor.

Then go along with your buddies into a blitzkrieg rush, taking the
fastest path to the map objective (bombsite, hostage point, or where
the enemy is likely to be) that's obscured and good for close combat.
Have the mentality of "I'll take as many of you down with me as I can."

When you meet the enemy, throw caution to the wind and go for the kill.
Chances are, the enemy will be taken aback by the sudden intensity of
your assault. You practically are like madmen charging in with your
MP5s. Having no extra ammo is very important: it gives you a "do or die"
attitude which heightens your killing instinct.

Once the enemy is down and if you're still alive, pick up their guns,
they probably have a good expensive rifle or something, since they've
been winning.

The point of this technique is to save money while giving yourself a
reasonable chance of killing at least one opponent. It has the advantage
of costing only $1500, and since you buy only one thing, you have a lot
of speed at the start. And since you should do this in a group, the
bloodlust is pretty terrifying.

If you survive the run, you can pick up your enemy's gun free of charge.
If you die, then at least you saved up some money for next time.
Regardless, your weapon on the ground is empty (since you bought no
extra ammo), and any opponents looking to pick up your gun may be
disappointed that there's nothing inside.

Using this technique for one round is usually enough to net you a
better gun and armor in the next round. If you're going for an arctic,
consider using this technique twice in a row.

Take note that this technique also works well with the other cheap
SMGs, such as the TMP or the Ingram.

Bunny Combat
--------------
Although jumping greatly decreases your accuracy, it makes it more
difficult for an enemy to hit you. Use this to your advantage with
the MP5 when you are up-close. Although I stated earlier that it is
generally in your best interest not to jump while attacking, the MP5
at close to point blank is one of the weapons which can safely ignore
that principle.

When jumping with the MP5, try to flank the enemy with the jump
while keeping the cursor aimed at his head. As soon as your aim
is true (usually at the height of the jump), let loose and when
you hit the ground, keep running around him. If neither of you are
dead yet, repeat the process.

I've found that this fast-paced bunny combat really wastes lesser
shrubs who haven't quite gotten their CS legs yet, or against
snipers who tend to remain stationary while trying to aim at you.

Alternately, upon facing your opponent, you can duck while aiming
vertically towards the enemy. As soon as he is within your vertical
sights, start hopping up and down while still crouching. This tends
to really disorient the enemy. If he isn't familiar with the
technique, he will have at first adjusted his aim down to compensate
for your ducking, but when you jump this throws his aim of a second
time. Chances are, his shots will hit your feet instead of your
chest or head, doing minimal damage. All the while, keep your cursor
trained at his chest or neck while hopping, and you will be doing far
more damage.

This alternate stationary jump-ducking trick is very useful against
opponents of equal caliber as you, but who might be surprised at the
move. Beware not to use it to often against them, though; if they're
good, they'll probably figure out to aim up when you are about to
jump, and that tends to waste you faster than you can waste him.

========================
How to Defeat the MP5
------------------------

"Our fighting style has never lost a battle. Because we always run
away, we never have the chance to lose."
  -- Grand Master of the Wind Style, Lunar 2: Eternal Blue

The best defense against the MP5, without a doubt, is to keep your
distance. When using just about any other gun (except the shotguns),
keeping yourself at medium to long distance from an MP5 player will
increase your survivability a lot. MP5s are simply devastating at
close range, but less terrifying at range.

Pistols, for instance, I've generally found to work better at sniping
than the MP5. If you're armed with just a pistol, stay away and snipe
from a distance, where your lesser recoil gives you the edge.

Assault rifles also follow suit. Most assault rifles do not have the
high-level of handling the MP5 has, and good MP5 players exploit this
fact. But all rifles have stronger ammo, and better accuracy. Thus,
try to stay away from the MP5 and kill him at medium range. With a
sniper rifle, do it at long range.

However, the fun really begins when you both have assault weapons.
The MP5 Duel, although usually over in a few seconds, is one of the
most exciting (and common) aspects of Counter Strike.

In these cases, the general guidelines above apply. Side step, side
step, side step. That's the best way to ensure you survive. Try the
Bunny Combat every now and then to throw your opponents off.


Most of all, with the MP5, never be afraid to fight in close quarters.
Close combat is your domain. Don't ever be afraid at this range,
no matter if your opponent uses the XM1014, the Aug, the Para, or is
a master assault Arctic sniper. Don't hesitate. Move in, and kill.


===============================================================================
7C.   Kalashnikov AK-47  [4-1]
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
NOTE:
The AK-47 is the archetypal sporadic weapon. Most of these techniques apply 
as well for the other similar guns: the Mac-10, the M249 Para, and the UMP.

(In the absence of the other gun sections, use this as a reference)

Why Use the AK-47?
-----------------------------------------
Bang for your buck. No other gun gives you so much power and ranged
accuracy for such a cheap price. It is great for long range bursts,
and the 7.62mm ammo can kill an armored enemy in two or three hits.
Priced at $2500, it is very affordable even for the terrorist on a
budget.

Weaknesses
----------------------------------
1.) HEAVY. Only two guns impede your movement more than this gun. In
other words, you're an easy target.

2.) Killer recoil. Few guns have such a strong kickback. You know the 
old saying "Lightning never strikes the same place twice?" You could 
apply that to this gun in autofire mode.

3.) Slow rate of fire. The AK-47 has one of the slowest rates of fire
among all the auto-fire guns. 
 
------------------------------------------
How to Use the AK-47: General Principles
==========================================

Burst and Single Fire
-----------------------
The AK-47 has one of the worst recoils in the game. What this means is that
your first shot will typically be dead on, but the second and subsequent
shots will likely spray elsewhere. Because of this, you should refrain from
using auto-fire with the AK-47 as much as possible. In general, stick to
two or three bullet bursts with this gun. This gives you the best ratio for
killing power and controllability.

---------------------------------------------
| With the AK-47, three shot bursts is best |
---------------------------------------------

Aim Before You Shoot
-----------------------
Aside from the single shot sniper rifles, no other gun benefits more from
this simple rule. Since the recoil gives you a solid first shot, but dubious
succeeding ones, the first shot is vital. Thus, aim before you shoot, unlike
with other guns with less recoil where you can spray all over.

Headshot Mania
-----------------
Because of the power of the AK-47, a single headshot will kill anyone, 
regardless of health or armor. By aiming at the general neck area of any
opponent, the recoil of the AK-47 tends to make your second shot hit the
head as the gun kicks up. 

While you should strive to make the first shot be a head shot, the recoil
of the gun actually makes it likely that your subsequent shots will hit
the head. By learning this nuance of the AK-47 and mastering it through
practice, your kills will soar.

To Sidestep or Not To Sidestep
----------------------------------
While the AK-47 has decent handling, it is nowhere near as good as that
of the MP5 or other true assault guns. Because of this, you should side
step sparingly when using the AK-47. I believe that, instead of side-
stepping, you should focus on aiming and killing quickly instead of
defense. Throw defense out the window. Learn how to kill as quickly as
possible with lightning fast aiming. The AK-47 has the bullet power to
do so.

Besides, since BETA 7, the AK-47 was downgraded to be very heavy. It slows
you down a LOT. Moving and sidestepping simply doesn't provide you as
much defense while wielding the AK. 

--------------------------------------
| Aim is more important than Evasion |
--------------------------------------

Thus, in general, when in a face-to-face combat situation, I find that 
ducking and shooting is the preferred technique with the AK-47, as opposed 
to figure eight sidestepping. 

If you're in long range battle with a sniper, by all means keep moving!
But against other guns like the MP5, Aug, and Commando which have lesser
fire power, you're better off just being quicker on the draw and better
with the aim. To achieve that aiming accuracy advantage, duck and shoot. 
You have more potential of dealing damage than if you sidestep.

Sporadic Ambush Mentality
---------------------------
The AK-47 suffers from three main disadvantages. They are:

1.) Terrible Recoil
2.) Slow Movement Speed
3.) Slow Rate of Fire

However, it has two important advantages:

1.) Strong fire power
2.) Superb Accuracy

These weaknesses mean that the AK-47, like all the sporadic guns, does not
particularly excel as a frontal assault weapon. The recoil makes it difficult
to kill consistently at close range, as you will usually lose to the more
controllable assault guns. To aggravate this, the slower Rate of Fire means
you cannot deal as much damage as quickly as the assault guns, and the slow
movement deprives you of the maneuvering advantage of the Figure Eight form.

Thus, you must make up for this by playing the Sporadic way. You have to be a
little sneakier than usual. The first vital rule is to have cover close by at
all times. By ducking to and from cover, and shooting while doing so, you 
greatly increase your chances of killing an opponent while reducing the risk
to yourself. 

It may seem that this is common sense for all guns, but it works more 
effectively for sporadic guns than assault guns, because sporadic weapons
tend to have more killing power in short, sporadic bursts. The AK-47, for
instance, has more power than an Aug. It can do more damage in that instant
darting from cover than the assault gun. And unlike the sniper guns, which
tend to require more aiming time, the Sporadic gun has a good chance of 
hitting a target without as careful an aim.

Since cover is essential, you often want to keep your distance from the
assault guns that are more dangerous at close range. In addition, most
sporadic guns have good accuracy for mid-range attacks. Thus, the Sporadic
class tends to work better at mid range than close range. 

Ambushes, thus are important methods for the Sporadic gun. While ambushing 
works for all guns, it is doubly important for a Sporadic gun because
the strong firepower usually means that extra second of surprise is enough 
to kill any opponent.

----------------------------------------------------------------
| With Sporadic Guns, do quick ambushes and duck back to cover |
----------------------------------------------------------------

Other guns in the Sporadic class share this pattern of strengths and 
weaknesses. While the specifics for each gun differ a bit, they generally
all conform to this pattern. The Mac-10, for instance, is not as effective
for assaults as, say, an MP5. This is because the recoil screws your aim.
As for its strength, it may not have the range accuracy of the AK-47, but 
it is strong in bursts because of the very fast rate of fire and .45 ammo. 
Within a shorter span of time, it is more effective than the MP5 at
dealing damage. It is thus sporadic in short bursts at very close range.

What this means is that they do not operate as well for frontal assaults as 
the true assault guns. Thus, you have to compensate by playing a little 
sneakier than usual. Although I said that in a frontal combat situation 
you generally have a better chance of surviving by focusing on aim instead
of side-stepping, the true sporadic mentality impels you to avoid getting
in frontal combat situations in the first place.


------------------------------------------
AK-47: Other Techniques
==========================================

Sporadic Side Step Technique
----------------------------
Unlike the "Assault Figure Eight Side Stepping Technique" used for the MP5
and other assault guns, the AK-47 requires a slightly modified sporadic 
side-step technique.

In Assault Figure Eight, you usually engage an enemy in a head-on fight as
you rush his position. Because you keep your facing towards your enemy while
sidestepping, you are actually moving towards your enemy while (thus you tend 
to curve around your opponent, like the arc in an '8'). You are effectively
flanking around your enemy.

     Figure Eight Assault Side Step:

               -> B
             /    
           /
          A       C

However, for a sporadic gun, you generally do not want to move towards your
opponent. Your concern is to get to the next patch of cover. Thus, an AK-47
sidestep is best done from two points behind cover, like a doorway or two
opposite crates in a tunnel. 

Doorway Diagram:           Tunnel Diagram: 
        C                 ---------------------        [] -- crate or
------|   |-------                 A  []                   other obstacle
------|   |-------                            C          
    A --->  B                      B  []
                          ----------------------

A is your starting point, then you rush and sidestep from A to B, pointing
towards C (your enemy) and firing in that brief instant between cover.

To achieve this kind of sidestep, you must adjust your movement such that
you do not move towards your opponent like a Figure Eight Assault side
step would. In Figure Eight, you typically just move either left or right
while changing your facing to match your opponent. With Sporadic Side Step,
you will be pressing your back movement key a bit to keep from getting
closer to the enemy.

To increase your survivability, it is also a good idea to jump when darting
from point A into the open. 


AK-47 Sidestep Burst Firing
------------------------------
The effective way to shoot while doing a Sporadic Sidestep is in quick 
bursts. While sidestepping from cover, point your gun towards your target.
Use a modified sort of Glide Aim (moving the cursor to your target by
sidestepping) mixed with Mouse Aiming (pointing your cursor at your target).
As soon as your cursor goes over your enemy, tap the trigger button 
lightly, thus attacking either single fire or with a short burst. 

This keeps your aim from dissolving, thus you can fire again in a split
second. Continue this until you reach cover. If your opponents do not
charge you, you can make another sorty backwards, though this is
dangerous if your opponent decides to wait at the other end to fire at
you. Instead, you should leave that area and find another spot to do
a sporadic ambush.


AK-47 Sniping
------------------------

*I'm sleepy. I'll finish this up later*

========================
How to Defeat the AK-47
------------------------
*Ditto*




===============================================================================
APPENDIX A -- USEFUL LINKS
===============================================================================

Scripting Links

   This section contains some useful links to help you learn the fine art
   of scripting. This is important to make full use of your console.
   Thanks, Paul for the links!

      http://www.nextwish.org/nwcs.shtml#Download
      http://www.geocities.com/s_x_r_x_r_n_r

Map Tactical Links

   In the absence of specific map tactics in my guide, refer to these
   sites. Hopefully one day I will muster the resolve to make my own
   map tactics. But for now, these will have to do.

      http://csnation.counter-strike.net/cs2d

Bot Links

   These are links to Counter Strike bots. Bots are a great way to practice
   without embarassing yourself in front of other people, and you can play
   with them any time! I'll write a bot training guide soon.

      http://www.botepidemic.com
      http://www.nuclearbox/podbot
      http://www.planethalflife.com/botman

Map Links

   Go here to download some maps. Sometimes you go to a server and find that
   they have maps you don't. Or maybe you're sick of playing the same old
   levels over and over again. Whatever, find them here.

      http://cstrike.digitalrefuge.com/maps
      http://www.planethalflife.com/csmaps/cs_maps.asp
      http://www.counter-strike.de


Anti-Cheat Links

    Sick of cheating? Well, check this site out.

      http://www.punkbuster.com

Aimbot Links

    Hah! You wish. As if I'd condone the use of such pathetic trinkets.

Miscellaneous Links

   This is the homepage of this guide's mailing list:
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/CSFAQML

   This is where you can find the latest version of this guide:
      http://www.crosswinds.net/~mosquiton/cs-tactics.zip


===============================================================================
APPENDIX B -- BOT TRAINING GUIDE (still under construction)
===============================================================================

Some tips to help you train and increase your skill. Hmm, for
now, I suggest you get Pod Bot. It's a fun bot to play with!
But for real tough training, try NNBot. It cheats, though.

===============================================================================
APPENDIX C -- FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS (FAQ)
===============================================================================
Q: Could you send me an updated version of the guide whenever you finish 
   writing it? Please?
A: Join the Counter Strike Weapons and Tactics Guide Mailing List! (CSFAQML) 
   That way you'll know exactly when I upload a new version. Send mail here:
   

Q: I want to post your guide at my web site! Please let me!
A: Go ahead. Who am I to argue? ^_^ Just don't change the content. You
   could format it better to make it look more presentable, but please
   don't make it say something it didn't, and kindly don't "cut and paste"
   and plagiarize anything.

Q: How long have you been playing Counter Strike?
A: I've been on board since Beta 1, but I stopped playing at intervals.
   I wasn't exactly impressed by Beta 1. But as more features and better
   graphics came in, I began playing CS more and more, especially around
   Beta 5, when the CS craze began overtaking the Action Quake and Rogue
   Spear craze over here.

Q: What is your ICQ number?
A: Sorry, I don't have ICQ at the moment.

Q: Aw, but I wanted to have a match with you!
A: There've been a lot of people writing in, telling me that they want to
   fight me. They think I'm a skilled player. Well, I'm here to debunk
   that myth. I am actually a very average player in the LANs I frequent.
   If you guys think I'm good, I'd love to introduce you to the people who
   kick my ass on a regular basis! In fact, many of the techniques I detail
   here were taught to me by these masters. I haven't even mastered many of
   the techniques I discuss.

Q: So that means I can't have a match with you?
A: Not unless you frequent the LANs I go to. I don't play CS on-line, 
   sorry. Maybe when I get a DSL or cable connection.

Q: How do I activate the console? HELP!
A: Read the revised portion of the guide. Section 5.a4, I think.

Q: The Mimic Technique won't work!
A: Good! I am finally beginning to realize that I am doing the CS community
   at large a disservice by showing people how to do this cheap trick. While
   my initial intention really was to educate people about cheats (and thus
   take steps against them), I think what's happening is that more newbies
   are swayed by the promise of the cheap power it gives. Don't use this
   cheat! Grow strong with your own skills! Use this only if you and a bunch
   of friends want to do it for fun. In the next revision, I may take out
   how to do the 'bad' cheats altogether.

Q: Where is the MP5 guide? I want it now!
A: It's there already! Now you have to wait for the AK-47 guide....

Q: Where are the map specific techniques? I want to kick-ass in DE_DUST!
A: Sorry, that part of the guide is not even confirmed yet. It's really hard
   to do it, because to properly explain such techniques I'd have to make a
   diagram of the map. If ever, this will probably be the last thing I add.
   I'm not a very graphically-oriented person, sad to say. Fortunately, there
   are some sites on the net which provide map strategies. See the Links
   section.

Q: What do you think of Estrada?
A: Yes, believe it or not, someone actually asked me this question! Only
   one person did, though, so it's not really a Frequently-Asked Question.
   Still, it was funny, and it was a foreigner who asked me this! I wanted
   to put it here because it was fun and, if you think about it, it's quite
   related to Counter Strike. A terrorist could plant the bomb in Estrada's
   residence and solve the problem once and for all! Heck, I wouldn't be
   surprised if a "Counter Terrorist" team would be sent to "silence" the
   deposed president. I mean, the US tried to do that with Fidel Castro for
   years, right? HAHAHAHAA!!!

Q: What about ? I want to know about it!
A: If you're writing a question about a specific game-related thing, be
   sure to read the entire guide thoroughly. The answer might be there.
   Failing that, I suppose it's alright to ask a clarifying question to me
   directly. Just be patient, though, and use the [CS FAQ] tag.

Q: I want to contact you! Will you answer me?
A: If you're writing a friendly letter to chat, that's fine. If you're
   writing in to point out a mistake, make a suggestion, argue a point,
   or give criticism, that's alright. But I'd rather receive friendly
   mail praising my name.  ^_^;


===============================================================================
===============================================================================
i. DISCLAIMER:

I am not affiliated with Sierra, Valve, or the CS Team in any way. This is an
unofficial guide I am putting together, mainly for personal amusement, and as
an effort to help the growing Counter Strike community, particularly newbies.

You can do whatever you want with this file, because frankly I don't have
the time, interest or resources to do anything to you. However, I'd
appreciate it if you do not rip me off, and that you do not use this file
for any form of profit (or if you do, give me a cut! :) Using it for websites
to attract hits is fine. Anyway, bottom line is, I hope you acknowledge
whatever you do with this FAQ by giving me credit where it's due.

If you see any glaring errors, want to contribute something, want to disagree
with me, want to marry me, want to shout your head off, praise my genius, send
death threats, or whatever, feel free to e-mail. I'm open to suggestions or
whatever or what not, and since the information herein could be entirely
fallible and inaccurate. If you do send in something that I include, you will
be credited for it.

NOTE: Throughout the document I use the masculine pronoun. Call me
chauvanist, I don't care. I do it to simplify my writing.

CLARIFICATION: When I said not to use this FAQ for profit, I meant
you shouldn't be selling it to people in any way, as in charging
them to download it, or printing it as a manual and selling it, or
burning it on a CD marketed as game guide or whatever. Using it for
commercial web sites is fine; I can live with that. Actually, I can
also live with it being sold, but then I would feel bad about not
getting my cut.  It's just that I feel bad when people charge
for something I made. I also feel bad that knowledge has a price
set on it -- if I could, I would train every single CS player for
free. But since I can't, we have this FAQ.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ii. CREDITS

I'm gonna give credit where it's due.

Gooseman - and the rest of the CS Team. Thanks a lot for making this addictive
game and wasting hundreds of hours of my life. I'll never get those hundreds
of hours back! And to think I also had quite a backlog from Action Quake....

Count Floyd - for making POD Bot, currently the best bot for CS and the bot
I use to get a fun work-out when I'm not fragging innocent humans. Hmm,
since I'm thanking Floyd-hakushoku I guess I should also thank Botman....

Terraknight - he wrote the first CS FAQ I saw on the web. It influenced and
inpsired me to write my own, I guess. While I don't agree with a lot of what
he said, I respect his opinions. While his work did inspire this, I did NOT
rip-off stuff from his FAQ! I swear! I would never shortchange a fellow
countryman!

Hal - for giving me a conscience

[EED] Beej - for Sig 550 and drawradar info

payataz_zealot - for telling me how to change weapon names

Paul Kerr - for all those tricks and techniques, such as the Bunny Hop
and the many useful links. Gomen if I didn't credit everything!

Mike Ching - for all the useful gun info tidbits and the long,
interesting conversations. Funny RK list!

avielh - for the baiting trick and cheap nightvision

GenEx - my favorite party LAN for CS. Been there since Star Craft and Action
Quake, now we're still playing CS. Blech.

Glitch Snack Bar - for making those great tasting paninis for consumption
while killing terrorists and counter-terrorists alike.

GameFAQs - for giving this guide a home.

[gulay] Clan - One day I'm going to take over Counter Strike! MWAHAHAHAAA!!!

[GAY] Clan - for inspiring all those cowardly backstabbing techniques, thanks
guys! (er, gays)

If I forgot anyone, feel free to write in and give me a piece of your mind.

Good night!

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
iii. ADDENDUM:

In the future, this guide hopes to have:

- More techniques; I'm sure I missed some
- Specific Map techniques
- Japanese sounding names for most, if not all, the techniques
- More funny-sounding quotes from anime and other media
- Links to useful sites
- Team tactics guide. Most of these tactics are personal; but true CS play
  is teamplay
- Bot training guide to improve your skills in private
- Personal training tips
- no typos. I am lazy. I don't usually bother to edit.
- better editing. Too many wasted words.
- better formatting. An ASCII logo would look great.
- better organization.
- Damage Table for the weapons. But I have no values! Someone who
  knows, please write in and help!




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